Revolution-Green http://revolution-green.com Alternative Energy News Mon, 16 Jan 2017 08:19:33 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.1 Free Energy Generator, Hubbard Self Powerd Generator, http://revolution-green.com/free-energy-generator-hubbard-self-powerd-generator/ http://revolution-green.com/free-energy-generator-hubbard-self-powerd-generator/#comments Sun, 15 Jan 2017 14:09:28 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14559 What can I say? Hope you find this as funny as I did. However the 27,500 hits indicates their is an audience for these devices. No story just a video Free Energy Generator, Hubbard Self Powerd Generator, Static generator Video    

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What can I say? Hope you find this as funny as I did. However the 27,500 hits indicates their is an audience for these devices. No story just a video

Free Energy Generator, Hubbard Self Powerd Generator, Static generator

Video

 

 

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Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant. http://revolution-green.com/swansea-bay-tidal-lagoon-will-worlds-first-tidal-lagoon-power-plant/ http://revolution-green.com/swansea-bay-tidal-lagoon-will-worlds-first-tidal-lagoon-power-plant/#comments Sun, 15 Jan 2017 13:53:31 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14555 Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant. I know this is capital intensive, but its a great idea. I am sure there will be a diverse range of comments on this one. A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank […]

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Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant.

I know this is capital intensive, but its a great idea. I am sure there will be a diverse range of comments on this one.

A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank of hydro turbines in it. Water fills up and empties the man-made lagoon as the tides rise and fall. This will generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides, four times a day, every day.

Due to the  tides on the West Coast of Britain, by keeping the turbine gates shut for just three hours, there is already a 14ft height difference in water between the inside and the outside of the lagoon. Power is then generated as the water rushes through 200ft long draft tubes, rotating the 23ft diameter hydro turbines.

The project was awarded a Development Consent Order in 2015 and is primed for construction. It will comprise 16 hydro turbines, a six mile breakwater wall, generating electricity for 155,000 homes for the next 120 years. Its major delivery partners include Atkins, General Electric, Andritz Hydro, Laing O’Rourke and Alun Griffiths Ltd.

3513_50k_base_slide-swansea-bay-crop

The 320MW pathfinder project provides a scalable blueprint for our programme, opening up the option of a fleet of larger UK tidal lagoons to generate renewable electricity at a scale and low cost not seen before.To date, approximately £35 million has been spent on project development.  With the exception of a commercial loan from Welsh Government this has been financed privately.

The aim is to start on site in 2018.  Construction of the entire project will take four years, with first power generated in year three.

British institutions, led by Prudential’s InfraCapital and InfraRed Capital Partners, will provide equity funding for the business.  Macquarie Capital (Europe) Limited is advising Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay (TLSB) on debt funding, and has received close to 40 expressions of interest to provide debt finance to the project.

The majority of project’s £1.3 billion capital spend will be on content sourced in Wales and across the UK.

Independent reports find that 2,232 construction and manufacturing jobs will be directly sustained by the build, supporting thousands of further jobs in the wider Welsh/UK economy. The project is expected to contribute £316 million in Gross Value Added to the Welsh economy during construction, followed by £76 million in each of its 120 years of operation.

The independent Tidal Lagoon Industry Advisory Group has, since 2014, worked to ensure that Welsh and UK industry is ready to secure a primary position in the tidal lagoon sector.

British-made turbine and generator technology and engineering expertise will be at the heart of the project, seeding a new global industry with significant export potential for UK manufacturers. The project will facilitate the creation of two new manufacturing facilities to be built in Wales, one for machining and pre-assembly of turbines and one for heavy fabrication of steel components.

Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon requires only the rate of bill payer support currently offered to nuclear, a 60 year established industry. But because the project is small, its overall cost to households is also small: potentially as low as 20-30 pence per household per year, on average.

Economies of scale apply: large-scale lagoons generate cheaper power than small-scale lagoons.  The larger projects being prepared to follow the pathfinder at Swansea Bay could generate the cheapest electricity of all new power stations in the UK.

Research carried out by ComRes in May 2016 found that 84% of Conservative councillors and 83% of Conservative MPs are in favor of the project, which also features in the Conservative Party 2015 General Election manifesto.

Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon is already world famous. The project has been presented to audiences across the globe, including to European Union energy ministers and at COP21, the 2015 Paris Climate Conference. International TV crews and press reporters have been regular visitors to Swansea Bay.

shutterstock_285904760

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Quantum Future Revealed – Literally http://revolution-green.com/seeing-quantum-future-literally/ http://revolution-green.com/seeing-quantum-future-literally/#comments Sun, 15 Jan 2017 13:18:39 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14551 “We effectively needed to swing at the randomly moving tennis ball while blindfolded.” Seeing the future of Quantum Systems Scientists at the University of Sydney have demonstrated the ability to “see” the future of quantum systems, and used that knowledge to preempt their demise, in a major achievement that could help bring the strange and […]

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I am in transit stuck at HK airport for a few hours. I thought this is a little of topic but great weekend reading :

“We effectively needed to swing at the randomly moving tennis ball while blindfolded.”

Seeing the future of Quantum Systems

Scientists at the University of Sydney have demonstrated the ability to “see” the future of quantum systems, and used that knowledge to preempt their demise, in a major achievement that could help bring the strange and powerful world of quantum technology closer to reality.

CAPTION Trapped Ytterbium ions were used as one of the most advanced laboratory quantum systems for this study. Professor Biercuk’s research laboratories are now located in the Sydney Nanoscience Hub, after six years as a visiting scientist at the National Measurement Institute. CREDIT: University of Sydney.

The applications of quantum-enabled technologies are compelling and already demonstrating significant impacts – especially in the realm of sensing and metrology. And the potential to build exceptionally powerful quantum computers using quantum bits, or qubits, is driving investment from the world’s largest companies.

However a significant obstacle to building reliable quantum technologies has been the randomisation of quantum systems by their environments, or decoherence, which effectively destroys the useful quantum character.

The physicists have taken a technical quantum leap in addressing this, using techniques from big data to predict how QM systems will change and then preventing the system’s breakdown from occurring.

Publication

The research is published today in Nature Communications.

“Much the way the individual components in mobile phones will eventually fail, so too do quantum systems,” said the paper’s senior author Professor Michael J. Biercuk.

“But in quantum technology the lifetime is generally measured in fractions of a second, rather than years.”

Professor Biercuk, from the University of Sydney’s School of Physics and a chief investigator at the Australian Research Council’s Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, said his group had demonstrated it was possible to suppress decoherence in a preventive manner. The key was to develop a technique to predict how the system would disintegrate.

Professor Biercuk highlighted the challenges of making predictions in a QM world: “Humans routinely employ predictive techniques in our daily experience; for instance, when we play tennis we predict where the ball will end up based on observations of the airborne ball,” he said.

“This works because the rules that govern how the ball will move, like gravity, are regular and known. But what if the rules changed randomly while the ball was on its way to you? In that case it’s next to impossible to predict the future behavior of that ball.

“And yet this situation is exactly what we had to deal with because the disintegration of quantum systems is random. Moreover, in the quantum realm observation erases quantumness, so our team needed to be able to guess how and when the system would randomly break.

“We effectively needed to swing at the randomly moving tennis ball while blindfolded.”

The team turned to machine learning for help in keeping their quantum systems – qubits realised in trapped atoms – from breaking.

What might look like random behavior actually contained enough information for a computer program to guess how the system would change in the future. It could then predict the future without direct observation, which would otherwise erase the system’s useful characteristics.

The predictions were remarkably accurate, allowing the team to use their guesses preemptively to compensate for the anticipated changes.

Doing this in real time allowed the team to prevent the disintegration of the quantum character, extending the useful lifetime of the qubits.

“We know that building real quantum technologies will require major advances in our ability to control and stabilise qubits – to make them useful in applications,” Professor Biercuk said.

Our techniques apply to any qubit, built in any technology, including the special superconducting circuits being used by major corporations.

“We’re excited to be developing new capabilities that turn quantum systems from novelties into useful technologies. The quantum future is looking better all the time,” Professor Biercuk said.

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New Research on HHO http://revolution-green.com/new-research-hho/ http://revolution-green.com/new-research-hho/#comments Fri, 13 Jan 2017 09:55:44 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14547 As many of you are aware I spend many years researching HHO in different countries. this included a lot of testing in world class labs. I worked with mainly diesels. You can read about my findings and opinions here: http://revolution-green.com/hho-injection-diesels-truth/ My findings were: 1. HHO does work as a fuel combustion enhancer. 2. It will assist […]

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As many of you are aware I spend many years researching HHO in different countries. this included a lot of testing in world class labs. I worked with mainly diesels. You can read about my findings and opinions here: http://revolution-green.com/hho-injection-diesels-truth/

My findings were:

1. HHO does work as a fuel combustion enhancer.

2. It will assist in burning any unburnt fuel. It does not introduce extra energy  into the equation other than the unburnt fuel and CO

3. I can improve economy up to 8% in newer vehicles (typically under 5%) and over 20% in older ones especially if they are carbonized.

4. It will reduce specific emissions  and clean up engines.

Most of the professional drivers who used the HHO generators over long periods of time enjoyed the smoother running and slightly increased power. They could run taller gears and did achieve fuel savings. The HHO devices never really took of in the market place and many companies that had spent millions developing and selling them folded. There are still some companies making quality units and achieving modest sales and many experimenters are running devices often home made on their vehicles with much satisfaction. In many cases water injection obtained a similar result and typically had around a 5% efficiency gain on the road. Water injection also reduced EGT and provided more power. Water with Alcohol really boosted power (up to 40%) and reduced diesel consumption depending on the amount of alcohol injected

I would like to repeat the above results are on diesel engines and I have seen much better results on gasoline or petrol engines.

HHO Research

The following  research was on a gasoline engine was brought to our attention by George (many thanks)

Avatar

“I am willing to bet that this will wake people up”
http://www.sciencedirect.com/s…

 

Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on gasoline engine performance and emissions

Open Access funded by Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University
Under a Creative Commons license

Abstract

The objective of this work was to construct a simple innovative HHO generation system and evaluate the effect of hydroxyl gas HHO addition, as an engine performance improver, into gasoline fuel on engine performance and emissions. HHO cell was designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum HHO gas productivity per input power. The optimized parameters were the number of neutral plates, distance between them and type and quantity of two catalysts of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The performance of a Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi gasoline engine was evaluated with and without the optimized HHO cell. In addition, the CO, HC and NOxemissions were measured using TECNO TEST exhaust gas analyzer TE488. The results showed that the HHO gas maximum productivity of the cell was 18 L/h when using 2 neutrals plates with 1 mm distance and 6 g/L of KOH. The results also showed 10% increment in the gasoline engine thermal efficiency, 34% reduction in fuel consumption, 18% reduction in CO, 14% reduction in HC and 15% reduction in NOx.

Keywords

  • HHO gas;
  • Gasoline engines;
  • Hydrogen cell;
  • Exhausts emission

1. Introduction

A trending global concern, toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions of internal combustion engines, is motivating researchers to seek alternative solutions that would not require a dramatic modification in engines design. Among such solutions is using H2as an alternative fuel to enhance engine efficiency and produce less pollution [1]. This is not feasible from a commercial point view; building a system that generates H2 and integrating it with the engine system yield an expensive manufacturing cost [2] and impact the vehicle market price. Another option is blending H2 with Natural Gas (NG) [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. Ma et al. showed that the H2/NG mixture achieved shorter flame development and propagation periods, and so, the combustion efficiency is enhanced and emission levels were lower [3]. Musmar and Al-Rousan have designed, integrated and tested a compact HHO generating device on a gasoline engine. Their results showed that nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and fuel consumption were reduced by 50%, 20%, and ∼30%, respectively, with an addition of HHO gas [13] and [14]. The effect of HHO addition on CI engines was studied by Yilmaz et al.; their results reported an increase in engine torque by an average of 19.1%, a reduction in CO and Hydrocarbons (HC) emissions, and Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) by averages of 13.5%, 5%, and 14%, respectively [15]. Ji et al. [16] have studied the effect of H2 enrichment on a SI methanol-fueled engine, and reported an increase in Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) and both the thermal and volumetric efficiencies, with 3% of H2 by volume of the intake air.

Shivaprasad et al. [17] have experimented on a single cylinder SI gasoline engine while injecting H2 in the intake manifold in volumetric fractions (Vf) of the intake air between 5% and 25%. The results reported a continuous increase in Bmep and thermal efficiency, and a decrease in both HC and CO emissions, with an increase in H2 fraction. Unfavorably, a corresponding increase in NOx was reported with the rise in H2%. Wang et al., have conducted a number of experiments [18], [19], [20], [21], [22] and [23] on a SI 4-cylinder gasoline engine to investigate the performance of H2/gasoline blends. In most of the experiments, the engine was operated in a city driving condition of 1400 rpm. Results in [24] outlined the general qualities offered by H2 without any other modifications to the engine. Notably, the spark timing of the original gasoline operation was not modified, despite the predictable fast combustion of H2/gasoline. The results demonstrate a most profound enhancement in Bmep and thermal efficiency in lean conditions, and an increase in peak cylinder pressure and an advance in the corresponding crank angle (CA) with the increase in H2%.

Advantages of CO2, CO and HC reduction, while NOx increased, with higher H2 %, would be reasoned as follows: reduction of these 3 was attributed to enhanced combustion kinetics, as H2 combustion produces the oxidizing species of OH and O radicals that benefit the chemistry of Hydrocarbons (HCs) combustion. Besides, gasoline fuel flow was reduced with H2 enrichment – to maintain constant global mixture equivalence and compare the engine performance with pure gasoline – so, lesser HCs content is in the fuel, which cuts the formation of CO, CO2 and HC and promotes economic fuel consumption. Furthermore, hydrogen has a higher diffusion coefficient than that of the gasoline, and so, the gaseous H2 can disperse thoroughly in the charge and allow for greater mixture homogeneity and combustion completeness. On the other hand, NOxincrease was attributed to the higher adiabatic flame temperature of hydrogen [24].

Hydrogen has higher flame speed and its gasoline blend can be combusted faster. Still, as H2 addition widen the mixture flammability limit to leaner fuel equivalence, the reaction rate will be reduced and combustion would be prolonged in lean conditions. That is why the effect of spark timing was investigated in [25]; both of the highest thermal efficiency and indicated mean effective pressure (Imep) were achieved at a significantly retarded CA, compared to pure gasoline at the same equivalence. The effect of H2 on allowing a leaner operation was studied in [26]; H2 was added at a constant VF, while gasoline flow rate was gradually reduced until the lean limit (LL) was reached. LL was remarkably extended to an equivalence of 2.55, instead of 1.45 with unblended gasoline. In [18], the cyclic variations in IMEP were studied statistically, and H2 was found to smoothen engine operation as identified by a limited scatter in both the Imep and CA durations of heat release, when plotted against the number of cycles. This smooth operation effect was found to prevail in cold starting conditions, as reported in [19]. Reduction in flames development and heat release periods was attributed to the lower ignition energy of H2and its higher flame speed [24], compared to gasoline. In [20], reported is an interesting study of combining the benefits of lean combustion with H2 injection to achieve load control. The results reported a significant reduction in NOx at low and part-load conditions and an increase in the thermal efficiency for all loads. On the other hand, this H2-assisted lean operation at low loads suffered an increase in the CA combustion duration, which compromised the engine stability.

As perhaps in a next step, the use of standard hydroxygen gas (HHO) – produced by water electrolysis and consisting of H2 and O2 in 2:1 volume ratio – was investigated in [21] and [22] and compared with H2 enrichment at the same VF of the intake air. Collectively, it was found that HHO-gasoline blends can provide a comparable performance to H2 blends, if not better. HHO was claimed to grant a greater enhancement in thermal efficiency and Bmep and notably extend the stable LL of H2-gasoline blends. HHO was reported to reduce the CA of heat release duration. Such is desirable as it yields, combined with optimized spark timing, the heat release process to start-and-end in almost constant volume conditions (state of an ideal thermodynamic cycle), and so, enhancements in engine efficiency would be more pronounced. Notably in [21], standard HHO addition was calculated to increase the energy flow to the engine, contrary to H2, as it gets to higher VF while maintaining a constant global equivalence. Therefore, a higher Bmep realized with HHO compared to H2. On the other hand, HHO was reported to raise NOx to levels even higher than that of H2, which are already higher than these of the original gasoline fuel. Easier as it seems, adding H2 in the intake manifold substitutes some of the combustion air. Such can be thought to deteriorate combustion at some point if the hydrogen content got very high such that the charge entering the cylinder did not have sufficient O2 concentration to promote combustion completeness. Moreover, H2 lower density might dramatically inflect the engine volumetric efficiency (less mass in cylinders). Another study [23] attempted to investigate the effect of a variable H2 content in HHO gas, and reported an almost constant CO emission irrespective of the hydrogen fraction as it changed within 0–100%, and that H2fraction would control the diameter of particulate emissions.

There is more to be learned regarding the use of H2 or HHO in gasoline engines. The goal is to emphasize the great qualities they offer such as increased efficiency and peak pressure, and alleviate the drawbacks of higher NOx and reduced mass of the cylinder charge. The first step in this endeavor is to design a hydrogen generator capable of delivering the required flow for optimum performance, and to be at an acceptable size and weight for installation on a passenger vehicle. This would be the main objective of the present study.

2. Experimental setup and test procedure

2.1. HHO generator

2.1.1. System description

HHO generator used in this study is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of separation tank (1) which supplies the HHO cell (2) with continuous flow of water to prevent the increase in the temperature inside the cell and to provide continuous hydrogen generation.

(a) Schematic diagram of the HHO gas generation system. (b) HHO separation tank ...
Figure 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the HHO gas generation system. (b) HHO separation tank components.

Oxygen–hydrogen mixture generated from the dry cell will be back to the top of the tank with some water droplets.

2H2O→2H2+O2

Water droplets will separate and fall to the bottom of the tank with the rest of the water, while hydrogen and oxygen gases are directed to the engine intake manifold.

The HHO flow rate was measured by calculating the water displacement per time according to the setup shown in Fig. 1. The HHO gas leaves the separation tank and flows into the water open pool (4) bushing the water down of the inverted graduated cylinder (3). The volume of gas collected in the graduated cylinder per unit of time was measured as the HHO flow rate. Therefore, the cell productivity can be calculated from the following equation:

2.1.2. HHO dry cell

Stainless steel tumblers were used as the electrodes. There are 16 electrodes 16 × 20 × 0.2 cm thickness, configured as shown in Fig. 2 in alternate form (+,2N,−), where (+) represents the positive electrode, (N) is neutral, and (−) is the negative electrode. Amperage flows from the negative battery terminal through the neutral plates to the positive plate and onto the positive terminal. Neutrals reduce the plate voltage, share the same amperage and increase surface area for HHO production. The gap between adjacent tumblers was limited to 1 mm using rubber gaskets. In addition, 20 × 24 × 1 cm thickness cover plates were made of acrylic to provide visual indication of electrolyte level. HHO cell is supplied by electrical energy from the engine battery which is recharged by the engine alternator.

HHO fuel cell. (a) A schematic diagram of HHO cell. (b) Plates’ arrangement ...
Figure 2.

HHO fuel cell. (a) A schematic diagram of HHO cell. (b) Plates’ arrangement (using 2 neutral plates). (c) HHO dry cell with Water inlet and gas outlet ports.

The cell productivity was tested without being connected to the engine with 2 different catalysts, KOH and NaOH, to find the best electrolyte with best concentration experimentally. The calculation was done based on the following equation:

View the MathML source

V: Hydrogen volume collected = 1/9 displaced volume of the cylinder 3.

V/Kmole : Volume occupied by one kmole = 22.4 m3/Kmole

M: Molecular weight of hydrogen = 2

Energy gained = mH2 × LHVH2

LHVH2 = 121,000 kJ/kg

View the MathML source

View the MathML source

2.1.3. HHO separation tank

The HHO separation tank and its components are shown in Fig. 1b. It was constructed from 3.5 in PVC pipe (1) with a capacity of 2.2 L. A standard 4 in PVC end caps (2) were used to seal the top and bottom. A 0.5 in PVC ball valve (3) was used to refill the tank with Distilled water with dissolved catalyst. Hoses were used for water inlet (4) and HHO gas outlet from the cell, the condensed water and dissolved catalyst are carried to the cell through outlet (5) and HHO gas outlet (6) to the engine. It is equipped by a Pressure gauge (7) with vacuum range 0–1 bar and a spring loaded vacuum breaker.

2.2. Engine and test bed description

These research experiments were performed on Skoda Felicia engine whose specifications are shown in Table 1; tests were carried out at engine speeds of 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm with different loads.

Table 1.Engine specifications.

Engine model Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi1.3 L (1289 cm3)
Engine type In-line, 4-cylinders
Fuel system Multi point fuel injection
Compression ratio 9.7:1
Max. power 67.66 HP @ 5500 rpm
Max. torque 102 Nm @ 3750 rpm

Different engine parameters are measured, on a test rig which is illustrated in Fig. 3. Engine load was measured by Froude hydraulic dynamometer (2), engine speed and air flow rate by Vag-Com Diagnostic Systems (VCDS) (3), engine fuel consumption is measured by self-build inclined manometer (4), and engine emission by exhaust gas analyzer model TE488 (5).

Schematic diagram of engine and test bed description.
Figure 3.

Schematic diagram of engine and test bed description.

The testing is conducted for the taken engine operated with gasoline as base fuel without using the HHO cell and with using HHO cell connected to the inlet manifold. A constant speed test at variable load has been performed on this engine. The engine is tested and the measured data are collected at the same operating conditions for both cases of HHO/gasoline and gasoline fuel only.

For the safety purpose, HHO generation system is connected to the engine intake manifold through two flash-back arrestors which close gasoline engine in event of the intake manifold flashback. Fig. 4 shows the schematic diagram of the HHO system with safety component installed to the engine.

Schematic illustration of the HHO system with safety component installed on the ...
Figure 4.

Schematic illustration of the HHO system with safety component installed on the engine.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. HHO cell results

Fig. 5 shows the effect of KOH concentrations on the HHO cell average efficiency. It is found that 6 g/L of KOH as catalyst gives better efficiency at different engine speeds. It is also found that 4 g/L of NaOH gives better highest thermal efficiency compared to other NaOH concentration at different engine speeds as shown in Fig. 6.

Average efficiencies for using different concentrations of KOH at different ...
Figure 5.

Average efficiencies for using different concentrations of KOH at different engine speeds.

Average efficiencies for using different concentrations of NaOH at different ...
Figure 6.

Average efficiencies for using different concentrations of NaOH at different engine speeds.

Fig. 7 compares the results of 6 g/L of KOH with those of 4 g/L of NaOH, and it is found that 6 g/L KOH gives highest efficiency at different motor speeds (see Fig. 7).

Average efficiencies for using concentrations of 6g KOH and 4g NaOH per liter at ...
Figure 7.

Average efficiencies for using concentrations of 6 g KOH and 4 g NaOH per liter at different engine speed.

3.2. Engine performance

Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. It is noted that HHO gas enhances the combustion process through increasing engine thermal efficiency and reducing the specific fuel consumption. Comparing HHO gas to commercial gasoline fuel, HHO is extremely efficient in terms of fuel chemical structure. Hydrogen and oxygen exist in HHO as two atoms per combustible unit with independent clusters, while a gasoline fuel consists of thousands of large molecules hydrocarbon. This diatomic configuration of HHO gas (H2 and O2) results in efficient combustion because the hydrogen and oxygen atoms interact directly without any ignition propagation delays due to surface travel time of the reaction. On ignition, its flame front flashes through the cylinder wall at a much higher velocity than in ordinary gasoline/air combustion [3]. The released heat of HHO facilitated breaking of the gasoline molecules bonds and hence increasing reaction rate and flame speed and then combustion efficiency is increased.

Overall thermal efficiency improvement with HHO over pure gasoline fuel at ...
Figure 8.

Overall thermal efficiency improvement with HHO over pure gasoline fuel at different engine speeds; (a) 1500 rpm, (b) 2000 rpm, and (c) 2500 rpm.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on BSFC; (a) 1500rpm, (b) 2000rpm, ...
Figure 9.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on BSFC; (a) 1500 rpm, (b) 2000 rpm, and (c) 2500 rpm.

It is also noted that introducing HHO gas to the fuel/air mixture has a positive impact on the octane rating of gasoline fuel. Therefore the engine compression ratio can be raised and more gain in the efficiency can be obtained. In addition the ignition advance could be increased to maximize the engine torque without knocking of engine.

3.3. Engine emissions

The effect of supplying the gasoline engine with HHO gas on the carbon monoxide CO, unburned hydrocarbon HC and nitrogen oxides NOx is presented in Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12 respectively.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on CO emission; (a) 1500rpm, (b) ...
Figure 10.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on CO emission; (a) 1500 rpm, (b) 2000 rpm, and (c) 2500 rpm.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on HC emission; (a) 1500rpm, (b) ...
Figure 11.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on HC emission; (a) 1500 rpm, (b) 2000 rpm, and (c) 2500 rpm.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on NOx emission; (a) 1500rpm, (b) ...
Figure 12.

Effect of varying the engine dynamometer load on NOx emission; (a) 1500 rpm, (b) 2000 rpm, and (c) 2500 rpm.

CO is highly affected by the fuel to air ratio of the engine, so using a blend of HHO gas reduces significantly the presence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust due to decreasing the gasoline fuel consumption.

In Fig. 11, it is clear that, at fixed speed the unburned hydrocarbon increases as the load increases. This is due to more fuel is introduced to achieve the desire engine torque and hence it leads to increase in HC emission. It also noted that there is a reduction in HC emission when the engine runs with HHO/gasoline than gasoline fuel only. This is owing to the high O2 % in HHO gas being injected into the intake manifold which in turn enhances the fuel oxidation process and reduces the HC emission.

High NOx emission is usually increased with high flame temperature and excess air. Introducing HHO into the intake manifold results in reducing the amount of gasoline which leads to lean mixture and hence, resulting in reduction in the flame temperature. Therefore, lower NOx emission is obtained as shown in Fig. 12. HHO gas shifts all emission curves downward, since it enhances the combustion characteristics and consequently reduces the fuel consumption at any speed. The obtained results from this work have comparable trend as those for reference [21], [22], [23], [24], [25] and [26].

The voltmeter and ammeter were calibrated at the electrical laboratory and the dynamometer was calibrated in the internal combustion laboratory, both laboratories are located in Alexandria University. It was found that the error is less than 1%. The error analysis, which is given below, shows the uncertainty of the measured data.

Engine power Uncertainty min engine rpm 1500 max engine rpm 2500
min engine load 5 ib max engine load 20 ib
±0.11 ±0.37
HHO cell power Uncertainty min HHO cell volt max HHO cell volt
min HHO cell amp max HHO cell amp
±0.13 ±0.135

4. Conclusion

Laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the effect of HHO gas on the emission and performance of a Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi engine. A new design of HHO fuel cell has been performed to generate HHO gas required for engine operation. The generated gas is mixed with a fresh air in the intake manifold. The exhaust gas concentrations have been sampled and measured using a gas analyzer. The following conclusions can be drawn.

1.

HHO cell can be integrated easily with existing engine systems.

2.

The engine thermal efficiency has been increased up to 10% when HHO gas has been introduced into the air/fuel mixture, consequently reducing fuel consumption up to 34%.

3.

The concentration of NOx, CO and HC gases has been reduced to almost 15%, 18% and 14% respectively on average when HHO is introduced into the system.

4.

The best available catalyst was found to be KOH, with concentration 6 g/L.

5.

The proposed design for separation tank takes into consideration the safety precautions needed when dealing with hydrogen fuel.

It is recommended for the future work to study the effect of both compression ratio and ignition advance on the engine performance and emissions with introducing HHO gas into the gasoline engine.

References

    • [3]
    • F. Ma, M. Wang, L. Jiang, J. Deng, R. Chen, N. Naeve, et al.
    • Performance and emission characteristics of a turbocharged spark-ignition hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas engine under wide open throttle operating conditions
    • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35 (2010), pp. 12502–12509
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    • F. Ma, M. Wang, L. Jiang, R. Chen, J. Deng, N. Naeve, et al.
    • Performance and emission characteristics of a turbocharged CNG engine fueled by hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas with high hydrogen ratio
    • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35 (2010), pp. 6438–6447
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    • F. Ma, S. Ding, Y. Wang, M. Wang, L. Jiang, N. Naeve, et al.
    • Performance and emission characteristics of a Spark-Ignition (SI) Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG) engine under various operating conditions including idle conditions
    • Energy Fuels, 23 (2009), pp. 3113–3118
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    • K.V. Shivaprasad, S. Raviteja, P. Chitragar, G.N. Kumar
    • Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition high speed gasoline engine
    • Procedia Technol., 14 (2014), pp. 141–148
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    •  PDF (594 K)

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    • S. Wang, C. Ji
    • Cyclic variation in a hydrogen-enriched spark-ignition gasoline engine under various operating conditions
    • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37 (2012), pp. 1112–1119
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    •  PDF (1279 K)

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    • S. Wang, C. Ji, B. Zhang
    • Starting a spark-ignited engine with the gasoline–hydrogen mixture
    • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36 (2011), pp. 4461–4468
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    •  PDF (663 K)

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    • S. Wang, C. Ji, B. Zhang, X. Liu
    • Realizing the part load control of a hydrogen-blended gasoline engine at the wide open throttle condition
    • Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39 (2014), pp. 7428–7436
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    •  PDF (1166 K)

 

Peer review under responsibility of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.
Corresponding author.

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TESLA GIGAFACTORY December Construction Update http://revolution-green.com/tesla-gigafactory-december-construction-update/ http://revolution-green.com/tesla-gigafactory-december-construction-update/#comments Fri, 13 Jan 2017 04:47:42 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14542 Battery Cell Production Begins at the Gigafactory The following is a press release from Tesla Tesla’s mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy through increasingly affordable electric vehicles in addition to renewable energy generation and storage. At the heart of these products are batteries. Today at the Gigafactory, Tesla and Panasonic begin […]

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Battery Cell Production Begins at the Gigafactory

The following is a press release from Tesla

Tesla’s mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy through increasingly affordable electric vehicles in addition to renewable energy generation and storage. At the heart of these products are batteries. Today at the Gigafactory, Tesla and Panasonic begin mass production of lithium-ion battery cells, which will be used in Tesla’s energy storage products and Model 3.

The high performance cylindrical “2170 cell” was jointly designed and engineered by Tesla and Panasonic to offer the best performance at the lowest production cost in an optimal form factor for both electric vehicles and energy products.

Production of 2170 cells for qualification started in December and today, production begins on cells that will be used in Tesla’s Powerwall 2 and Powerpack 2 energy products. Model 3 cell production will follow in Q2 and by 2018, the Gigafactory will produce 35 GWh/year of lithium-ion battery cells, nearly as much as the rest of the entire world’s battery production combined.

The Gigafactory is being built in phases so that Tesla, Panasonic, and other partners can begin manufacturing immediately inside the finished sections and continue to expand thereafter. Our phased approach also allows us to learn and continuously improve our construction and operational techniques as we continue to drive down the cost of energy storage. Already, the current structure has a footprint of 1.9 million square feet, which houses 4.9 million square feet of operational space across several floors. And we are still less than 30 percent done. Once complete, we expect the Gigafactory to be the biggest building in the world.

With the Gigafactory online and ramping up production, our cost of battery cells will significantly decline due to increasing automation and process design to enhance yield, lowered capital investment per Wh of production, the simple optimization of locating most manufacturing processes under one roof, and economies of scale. By bringing down the cost of batteries, we can make our products available to more and more people, allowing us to make the biggest possible impact on transitioning the world to sustainable energy.

Finally, bringing cell production to the U.S. allows us to create thousands of American jobs. In 2017 alone, Tesla and Panasonic will hire several thousand local employees and at peak production, the Gigafactory will directly employ 6,500 people and indirectly create between 20,000 to 30,000 additional jobs in the surrounding regions.

Video

 

Additional information

  • By the end of 2018, the Gigafactory is supposed to be producing batteries quickly enough to supply 500,000 Tesla electric cars per year.
  • In case you missed the initial announcement or many subsequent articles, that’s more lithium-ion batteries than the entire world produced in 2014.
  • The Gigafactory has 1.9 million square feet of floor space and an 800,000 square-foot footprint … 14% done.
  • Eventual target: 10 million square feet of floor space.
  • When the Gigafactory is finally fully done, it is supposed to be producing batteries quickly enough to supply 1.5 million Tesla electric cars per year.
  • Battery production machines rise 38 feet in height.
  • >800 construction workers are currently busy putting the Gigafactory up, on two daily shifts.
  • The Gigafactory is currently 1 mile long.

Source: https://cleantechnica.com/2016/07/29/tesla-gigafactory-honestly-whats-big-deal/

 

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Testatika free energy machine update http://revolution-green.com/testatika-free-energy-machine/ http://revolution-green.com/testatika-free-energy-machine/#comments Thu, 12 Jan 2017 08:43:11 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14521 I have decided to update the story with information presented in the comments section that suggests the story I presented is wrong. This could be the case given the sources on the internet are sometimes lacking the truth. Original Story The Testatika free energy machine keeps making an appearance and inspiring other to experiment . […]

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I have decided to update the story with information presented in the comments section that suggests the story I presented is wrong. This could be the case given the sources on the internet are sometimes lacking the truth.

Original Story

The Testatika free energy machine keeps making an appearance and inspiring other to experiment . Did it ever work ?????? I think not. I posted this for entertainment value. I look forward to the discussion.

The Testatika is an Electrostatic generator based on the 1989 Pidgeon  which includes an Inductance circuit. Allegedly a free energy machine that harnesses energy from the atmosphere, the Testatika resembles in some respects a Wimshurst machine. It was built by German engineer,  and promoted by a Swiss religious community The inventor Baumann has claimed that the concepts for the machines came to him via visitors from outer space while he was in a Swiss jail during the 1970’s on child abuse charges related to a religious cult that he had founded. (a common theme)  The Testatika is also known as the Swiss M-L converter or Thesta-Distatica.

The following video is typical of they type being posted by the enthusiasts who still believe in its potential and past claims.

Testatika description

 Operating Testatika devices were claimed to exist since the 1960s at a place called Methernitha (near Berne, Switzerland). The specific and precise working principles in the Testatika are unknown. From various sources, Testatika reportedly ultilizes design features of the electrostatic Pidgeon machine. The Testatika seems to possess an inductance circuit, a capacitance circuit, and a thermionic rectification valve. Devices heretofore seen have not used semiconductors or transistors. The entire circuit has been divided in two parts:

The following is derived from speculative reasonning from enthusiasts

Methernithan’s electrostatic generator
Image:Testatika-Line.png

Back-Engineering the Swiss Methernitha group’s Testatika, the PowerPedia:Wimshurst machine comes to mind immediately. The 1898 Pidgeon machine is the closest electrical circuit that matches the Testatika. From the basic Pidgeon system, modifications are indicated to boost, stabilize, and fix charge polarities at certain spots in the machine. The Wommelsdorf multi-disc condenser machine also have facets applicable to the Testatika.

The 1898 Pidgeon machine setup (apparent from the position of the neutralizing rods and how the charges are accumulated the fixed inductors are positioned in such a way that there is a increased induction effect) and charges parallel pads via air gaps. The Testatika has 50 ‘gitter-grilles’ per disc. These steel grilles are an innovation incorporated into electrostatic machines. The principle is from previous investigation and patents of electrical circuits inwhich the sectors are corrugated. Such corrugated electrostatic sectors are more efficient charge carriers in comparison of flat sectors. The discs transceive charges from the rotating discs to the collectors (or “tasten” antennae keys). The perforated key pads replace the standard brushes or pointed rails of historic electrostatic machines. The collectors do not touch the discs, the charge passes through a parallel air gap from the metal gitter-grilles to the pads. The air gap is, during operation, exposed to miniature eddy-currents that circulate around the perforated surface. This process is refered to as. Testatika, in contrast to the Pidgeon system, has an additional indirectly coupled collector at the front disc in the front top center.

The disks have a rotational speed of just 60 rpm (varying to 15 rpm). Each disk is in close proximity. The front clear perspex disc (‘cloud’ disc positive charge) and the back dark disc (‘ground’ disc negative charge) corresponds to the triboelectric series. The discs may also be doped with paramagnetic particles. Testatika’s neutralising rods are placed so that the charges induced from one area and accumulated elsewhere. The neutralizing rods equalize and stabilize the charges of opposite signs. Testatika’s neutralising rods give the machine correct distributed charge polarity at specific areas.

Swiss M-L auxiliary circuits

There has been many a dubious claims and misinformation that the particular service of radioactive materials is implemented to achieve its pulsed output. various experts on the machine are not in the opinion that is the case. The auxiliary electromagnetic circuit near the electrostatic generator it is believed to represent the circuit to achieve this.

The Testatika converts static energy into an electromotive force by means of its oscillation circuit and valve rectifiers. Electric current oscillations is controlled by coupling a thermionic rectifier valve, cylinders capacitors, and natural resistance. As the electromagnetic circuit oscillates, the oscillations are modulated through transformers and, ultimately, rectified into DC pulses. Hermann Plauson, the Estonian inventor, describes such methods to convert static power. Testatika’s thermionic rectifying valve has an anode mesh-plate, a coiled copper grid, a glowing (heated) cathode wire running horizontally across its centre, and the associated wires.

The horseshoe magnet contain four blocks of plexiglass-type media (p) alternated with copper (c) and aluminium (a) plates (in the series, c-p-a-c-p-a). It is unknown if these are perforated.Two horseshoe magnets with metalised-perspex laminated blocks alternated with copper and aluminium plates form, what various sources call, “electron cascade generators”. There is a chain reaction forming ‘free electrons’. Insulated wire is also wound around the horseshoe magnets (which may also be in a bifilar configuration) for induction purposes.

Two outside cylinders (with up to 20 concentric layers of perforated sheet) are utilized and the connection of each separate secondary winding may be based on the “disruptive discharge coil” devised by Nikola Tesla. The cylinders, at the sides, act partially as capacitors. This concentric condenser configuration develops a pulse forming network. Each cylinder has a core of 6 hollow donut-ring anisotropic ferrite magnets with plastic spacers for air gaps to form a transformer, also. A central input rod (or tube) connects at the bottom to a stack of inter-linked pancake coils (wound with the secondary outside and the primary inside). One transformer is wired to output negative and the other transformer is wired to output positive polarity with respect to magnetic reluctance gaps. Each is connected from the pancake coil secondaries to a brass ring via a brass screw terminal. The use of aluminium shielding mesh and solid copper shielding sheets are used to minimize stray electrostatic charges.

Two chokes assemblies are in the upright double glass tubes possessing spirally turned aluminium strip (with electrostatic shields). The tubes are two-thirds the tower height. The glass tube are terminated at the top with right-angled brass rods connecting with the rectifier. The wooden base has alternate layering of perforated metal plates and insulating plates forming a storage capacitor.

Conclusion

There are dozens of websites relating to this technology and claims surrounding it.  The following was posted from a visitor to the community back in 2008 and I feel says it all.

” despite originally deciding a ‘free energy’ device was necessary for this community’s energy needs, despite nature ‘giving up her secrets,’ despite building and demonstrating this device on several occasions, and despite withholding this technology from the rest of the world for over 20 years on moral issues, the simple fact that the community doesn’t even use the device poses some very baffling questions! All their electricity needs are met by a couple of wind generators and they buy whatever else they need from the grid, just like everybody else! The big question of this machine’s capability still remains satisfactorily unanswered”

Source for the above comment : https://forum.davidicke.com/showthread.php?t=17438

Update and Corrections

I occupied myself a lot with the Testatika. So without wanting to sound arrogant, I maybe know a bit more about it, than most people in the FE community.
(For anyone interested in real information about it, go to the Yahoo Testatika group, there we collected a lot of original information)

First I have to say, that most what you say here about it, is actually wrong. Which doesn’t surprise me, as most information about it on the internet is wrong.

E.g. Paul Baumann was a swiss citizen and not german, lol (no idea where you got this from…). Also, I do not know, where the “alien” story comes from, as there’s no original source indicating this story.
The machine has absolutely nothing to do with a Pidgeon machine, nor with a Wimshurst as a simple analysis of the pictures shows. The only similar thing are the two rotating discs, which are actually not needed for the basic principle to work.

Unfortunately also the remaining part of your “story” is basically just mostly wrong. Please don’t take any offense (as I said, there’s so much wrong info about it on the net, it’s no wonder).
The “schemata picture” is unfortunately pure nonsense. Paul Potter came once up with this idea, but it has no relation to the real machines, which can be easily observed by looking at the pictures we gathered in the meantime.

I spoke with some of the witnesses who saw the original machines running. And from this I can take the following: The machines delivered some output. But as far as we know noone ever saw the machine putting out a lot of power for a longer time. Any inductance coupling or hidden cables can be ruled out as people were allowed to lift them in the air and move them around while they were running.

They then tried to make the machines bigger to get more output. But this attempt failed. As it seems they didn’t output more power. Then they stopped making or using them anymore.

Most people think they used radioactive material. But there’s no known way of converting radioactive decay with such a high efficiency.
The machines would have had to be extremely strongly radioactive and the waste heat would have been enormous, and would have melted the machines IMHO instantly as they basically consisted of mainly plastics.

They gave several hints about the machine:
* it worked with air ions
* the machine stopped after a while in a closed room.
* the machine didn’t work in a faraday cage
* the machine did output more power during a thunderstorm
* the basic idea of the machine was inspired by observing lightning flashes
* they couldn’t size the machines up.

Baumann himself clearly said about the
working principle of the machine, that
it takes “electricity from the air”.
Also to various other visitors
he always explained the machines in that way, that
they get their energy from air ions.

If it really got some power “from the air” I cannot say. Baumann surely said that the basic principle (Linden Experiment) only works with two dissimilar metals. This strongly speaks for kind of a galvanic effect.

But strangely the hints they gave do not speak for a galvanic reaction alone for the power output. Namely that they couldn’t size the principle up, and that the machine stopped after a while in a closed room.
These observations actually rather speak really for some kind of air interaction.

We discussed many potential workings on the yahoo group, and I really don’t want to explain all these here. Elena basically wrote a complete book about all this stuff.

I personally think the machines did output some power, but were not able to output more power in a certain location (due to air saturation) and that the power output wasn’t so big for a longer time.

E.g. if we compare it to Plauson’s balloon collectors. There the balloons had to have quite some 100 yards distance between each other, as each one saturated the area around it.

So the result would be that the basic idea works, but it cannot be used in a practical usable way, just like Plauson’s idea.

I personally do not think it is a fake, for two reasons. The witness reports, but mainly because they built real big machines which were really expensive and then abandoned them. As it seems because they discovered that they cannot be sized up.

Just for a fake starting to make these huge very expensive machines just doesn’t make any sense to me. Especially if you then stop all work on it and don’t talk about it anymore…

Edit:
BTW: Quite some people think it got energy from the thermic energy of the air (ions). I really don’t believe this. First, because no witness ever observed that the air got cooler, and 2nd because the kinetic (thermal) energy of air is really small. With the power outputs indicated you would have seen almost immediate ice buildup on the machines…
But that’s just MHO.

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SolPad http://revolution-green.com/solpad/ http://revolution-green.com/solpad/#comments Wed, 11 Jan 2017 14:23:48 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14534 I do not have a lot of information on this but it looks like something that makes solar easy to use and portable. It is also an innovative way to mount them to structures. I am not sure of the costs but this is really a plug and play for solar and could really take […]

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I do not have a lot of information on this but it looks like something that makes solar easy to use and portable. It is also an innovative way to mount them to structures. I am not sure of the costs but this is really a plug and play for solar and could really take of making solar simple to install and use anywhere. Some very innovative engineering .

The Claims

Each unit features a high-efficiency solar panel, a built-in solid-state battery, an inverter system, and software that uses gamification to promote sustainable energy use, all contained in a single device. Traditionally, solar and home energy management devices are bought and installed separately.

“With our groundbreaking component miniaturization and integration, we’ve transformed solar — much like the smartphone revolutionized the personal computer sector — combining numerous components into a single device that’s significantly less expensive, more powerful, and easier to use than conventional systems,” said Estes.

The product comes in two versions: SolPad Home, which is designed to deploy on rooftops and power an entire household, and the SolPad stand-alone panel, which integrates into the home or can be used in off-grid applications. The products are scheduled to come to market in the second half of 2017.

 

 

 

http://solpad.com/

 

 

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New technology will cut plug-in hybrid fuel consumption by one third http://revolution-green.com/new-technology-will-cut-plug-hybrid-fuel-consumption-one-third/ http://revolution-green.com/new-technology-will-cut-plug-hybrid-fuel-consumption-one-third/#comments Wed, 11 Jan 2017 13:58:19 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14531 I think of in the past of all the fuel saving devices for sale. This one is out of left field and involves programming only.  Engineers at the University of California, Riverside have taken inspiration from biological evolution and the energy savings garnered by birds flying in formation to improve the efficiency of plug-in hybrid […]

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I think of in the past of all the fuel saving devices for sale. This one is out of left field and involves programming only. 

Xuewei Qi and a team of UCR researchers are using vehicle connectivity and evolutionary algorithms to improve the efficiency of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. CREDIT: UC Riverside

Engineers at the University of California, Riverside have taken inspiration from biological evolution and the energy savings garnered by birds flying in formation to improve the efficiency of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) by more than 30 percent.

Titled “Development and Evaluation of an Evolutionary Algorithm-Based Online Energy Management System for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” a paper describing the research was recently accepted for publication in the journal IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. The work was led by Xuewei Qi, a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) in UCR’s Bourns College of Engineering, and Matthew Barth, CE-CERT director and a professor of electrical and computer engineering at UCR.

PHEVs, which combine a gas or diesel engine with an electric motor and a large rechargeable battery, offer advantages over conventional hybrids because they can be charged using mains electricity, which reduces their need for fuel. However, the race to improve the efficiency of current PHEVs is limited by shortfalls in their energy management systems (EMS), which control the power split between engine and battery when they switch from all-electric mode to hybrid mode.

While not all plug-in hybrids work the same way, most models start in all-electric mode, running on electricity until their battery packs are depleted, then switch to hybrid mode. Known as binary mode control, this EMS strategy is easy to apply, but isn’t the most efficient way to combine the two power sources. In lab tests, blended discharge strategies, in which power from the battery is used throughout the trip, have proven more efficient at minimizing fuel consumption and emissions. However, their development is complex and, until now, they have required an unrealistic amount of information upfront.

“In reality, drivers may switch routes, traffic can be unpredictable, and road conditions may change, meaning that the EMS must source that information in real-time,” Qi said.

The highly efficient EMS developed and simulated by Qi and his team combines vehicle connectivity information (such as cellular networks and crowdsourcing platforms) and evolutionary algorithms–a mathematical way to describe natural phenomena such as evolution, insect swarming and bird flocking.

“By mathematically modeling the energy saving processes that occur in nature, scientists have created algorithms that can be used to solve optimization problems in engineering,” Qi said. “We combined this approach with connected vehicle technology to achieve energy savings of more than 30 percent. We achieved this by considering the charging opportunities during the trip–something that is not possible with existing EMS.”

The current paper builds on previous work by the team showing that individual vehicles can learn how to save fuel from their own historical driving records. Together with the application of evolutionary algorithms, vehicles will not only learn and optimize their own energy efficiency, but will also share their knowledge with other vehicles in the same traffic network through connected vehicle technology.

“Even more importantly, the PHEV energy management system will no longer be a static device–it will actively evolve and improve for its entire life cycle. Our goal is to revolutionize the PHEV EMS to achieve even greater fuel savings and emission reductions,” Qi said.

Reference

The work was done by Qi and Barth, together with Guoyuan Wu, assistant research engineer at CE-CERT, and Kanok Boriboonsomsin, associate research engineer at CE-CERT. This project was supported in part by the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

The UCR Office of Technology Commercialization has filed patents for the inventions above.

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SuperCapacitor Materials Ltd http://revolution-green.com/supercapacitor-materials-ltd/ http://revolution-green.com/supercapacitor-materials-ltd/#comments Wed, 11 Jan 2017 07:45:30 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14527 We covered this story late last year. In the past many companies made promises regards Super Caps but never delivered. More often than not the material in the lab under specific conditions show a theoretical potential, but the reality of capacitor engineering prevents the benefits flowing through to the end product. I was fortunate to […]

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We covered this story late last year. In the past many companies made promises regards Super Caps but never delivered. More often than not the material in the lab under specific conditions show a theoretical potential, but the reality of capacitor engineering prevents the benefits flowing through to the end product. I was fortunate to meet up with Uli over Christmas who is heavily involved in battery and Capacitor research and development and he reflected the same sentiment.

If this does pan out then this is the energy storage breakthrough of the century and will see a huge shift in transport and energy towards electric cars and renewables.

Claims

SuperCapacitor Materials Ltd has researched and developed new, crosslinked gel electrolytes exhibiting measured capacitance values over 100 times those of conventional electrolytes

These electrolytes are compatible with all normal production electrodes. They make possible supercapacitors with greatly enhanced specific energy storage capacities.We believe the combination of existing electrodes and our new electrolytes have the potential to create supercapacitors that have energy storage capacities which can approach or exceed existing battery systems.

Existing Caps 

The energy density of a supercapacitor depends on the properties and effective surface area of the electrodes and the properties of the electrolyte.

Advantages

  • High charge and discharge rates
    Wide range of operating temperatures
    Long life cycles

Disadvantages

  • Low energy densities of approximately 3 – 7 WHr / Kg

(editors note) So if I was to make the correct assumption that is being claimed we would see a 100 fold increase to 300- 700Whr / Kg 

History

SuperCapacitor Materials Ltd was established in 2016 to commercialise the development of crosslinked, gel-matrix polymers in supercapacitors from research carried out by Augmented Optics Ltd.

SuperCapacitor Materials Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of Augmented Optics Ltd, a company established to undertake the original Research Programme. The objective of the Research Programme was to develop new, electrically active materials for a number of electric and bio-electric applications. This work was undertaken at the University of Surrey, Guildford, with the assistance of the University of Bristol.

  • The new technology is believed to have the potential for electric cars to travel to similar distances as petrol cars without the need to stop for lengthy re-charging breaks of between 6-8 hours, and instead re-charge fully in the time it takes to fill a regular car with petrol.
  • The scientific findings made by Augmented Optics Ltd and its wholly owned subsidiary Supercapacitor Materials Ltd with the University of Surrey and University of Bristol have produced a safer, faster charging, more efficient and greener alternative to battery power and supercapacitor abilities as we currently know them.

Ground-breaking research from the University of Surrey and Augmented Optics Ltd., in collaboration with the University of Bristol, has developed potentially transformational technology which could revolutionise the capabilities of appliances that have previously relied on battery power to work.

This development by Augmented Optics Ltd., could translate into very high energy density super-capacitors making it possible to recharge your mobile phone, laptop or other mobile devices in just a few seconds.

The technology could have a seismic impact across a number of industries, including transport, aerospace, energy generation, and household applications such as mobile phones, flat screen electronic devices, and biosensors.  It could also revolutionise electric cars, allowing the possibility for them to recharge as quickly as it takes for a regular non-electric car to refuel with petrol – a process that currently takes approximately 6-8 hours to recharge.  Imagine, instead of an electric car being limited to a drive from London to Brighton, the new technology could allow the electric car to travel from London to Edinburgh without the need to recharge, but when it did recharge for this operation to take just a few minutes to perform.

Supercapacitor buses are already being used in China, but they have a very limited range whereas this technology could allow them to travel a lot further between recharges.  Instead of recharging every 2-3 stops this technology could mean they only need to recharge every 20-30 stops and that will only take a few seconds.

Elon Musk, of Tesla and SpaceX, has previously stated his belief that supercapacitors are likely to be the technology for future electric air transportation.  We believe that the present scientific advance could make that vision a reality.

The technology was adapted from the principles used to make soft contact lenses, which Dr Donald Highgate (of Augmented Optics, and an alumnus of the University of Surrey) developed following his postgraduate studies at Surrey 40 years ago.  Supercapacitors, an alternative power source to batteries, store energy using electrodes and electrolytes and both charge and deliver energy quickly, unlike conventional batteries which do so in a much slower, more sustained way. Supercapacitors have the ability to charge and discharge rapidly over very large numbers of cycles.  However, because of their poor energy density per kilogramme (approximately just one twentieth of existing battery technology), they have, until now, been unable to compete with conventional battery energy storage in many applications.

Dr Brendan Howlin of the University of Surrey, explained: “There is a global search for new energy storage technology and this new ultra capacity supercapacitor has the potential to open the door to unimaginably exciting developments.”

The ground-breaking research programme was conducted by researchers at the University of Surrey’s Department of Chemistry where the project was initiated by Dr Donald Highgate of Augmented Optics Ltd.  The research team was co-led by the Principal Investigators Dr Ian Hamerton and Dr Brendan Howlin.  Dr Hamerton continues to collaborate on the project in his new post at the University of Bristol, where the electrochemical testing to trial the research findings was carried out by fellow University of Bristol academic – David Fermin, Professor of Electrochemistry in the School of Chemistry.

Dr Ian Hamerton, Reader in Polymers and Composite Materials from the Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol said:  “While this research has potentially opened the route to very high density supercapacitors, these *polymers have many other possible uses in which tough, flexible conducting materials are desirable, including bioelectronics, sensors, wearable electronics, and advanced optics.  We believe that this is an extremely exciting and potentially game changing development.”

*the materials are based on large organic molecules composed of many repeated sub-units and bonded together to form a 3-dimensional network.

Jim Heathcote, Chief Executive of both Augmented Optics Ltd and Supercapacitor Materials Ltd, said: “It is a privilege to work with the teams from the University of Surrey and the University of Bristol.  The test results from the new polymers suggest that extremely high energy density supercapacitors could be constructed in the very new future.  We are now actively seeking commercial partners in order to supply our polymers and offer assistance to build these ultra high energy density storage devices.”

Reference (and where I copied the material from)

www.supercapacitormaterials.com

NOTES FOR EDITOR:  For interview requests with the University of Surrey or Augmented Optics Ltd/Supercapacitor Materials Ltd please contact Ashley Lovell on 01483 686141 or email a.lovell@surrey.ac.uk

For interview requests with the University of Bristol please contact Joanne Fryer on 0117 331 7276, mobile 07747 768804 or email joanne.fryer@bristol.ac.uk

 

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Crystallization method offers new option for carbon capture from ambient air http://revolution-green.com/crystallization-method-offers-new-option-carbon-capture-ambient-air/ http://revolution-green.com/crystallization-method-offers-new-option-carbon-capture-ambient-air/#comments Tue, 10 Jan 2017 07:43:38 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14518 While we are discussing carbon capture I thought I should include this. I am not overly excited by this but it is a new approach at least that is less energy intensive. Guandine Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found a simple, reliable process to capture carbon dioxide directly from […]

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While we are discussing carbon capture I thought I should include this. I am not overly excited by this but it is a new approach at least that is less energy intensive.

When an aqueous solution of a simple guanidine compound was open to air, beautiful prism-like crystals started to form as the material absorbed carbon dioxide. CREDIT: Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Genevieve Martin

Guandine

Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found a simple, reliable process to capture carbon dioxide directly from ambient air, offering a new option for carbon capture and storage strategies to combat global warming.

Initially, the ORNL team was studying methods to remove environmental contaminants such as sulfate, chromate or phosphate from water. To remove those negatively charged ions, the researchers synthesized a simple compound known as guanidine designed to bind strongly to the contaminants and form insoluble crystals that are easily separated from water.

In the process, they discovered a method to capture and release carbon dioxide that requires minimal energy and chemical input. Their results are published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

“When we left an aqueous solution of the guanidine open to air, beautiful prism-like crystals started to form,” ORNL’s Radu Custelcean said. “After analyzing their structure by X-ray diffraction, we were surprised to find the crystals contained carbonate, which forms when carbon dioxide from air reacts with water.”

Decades of research has led to the development of carbon capture and long-term storage strategies to lessen the output or remove power plants’ emissions of carbon dioxide, a heat-trapping greenhouse gas contributing to a global rise in temperatures. Carbon capture and storage strategies comprise an integrated system of technologies that collects carbon dioxide from the point of release or directly from the air, then transports and stores it at designated locations.

A less traditional method that absorbs carbon dioxide already present in the atmosphere, called direct air capture, is the focus of ORNL’s research described in this paper, although it could also be used at the point where carbon dioxide is emitted.

Once carbon dioxide is captured, it needs to be released from the compound so the gas can be transported, usually through a pipeline, and injected deep underground for storage. Traditional direct air capture materials must be heated up to 900 degrees Celsius to release the gas — a process that often emits more carbon dioxide than initially removed. The ORNL-developed guanidine material offers a less energy-intensive alternative.

“Through our process, we were able to release the bound carbon dioxide by heating the crystals at 80-120 degrees Celsius, which is relatively mild when compared with current methods,” Custelcean said. After heating, the crystals reverted to the original guanidine material. The recovered compound was recycled through three consecutive carbon capture and release cycles.

While the direct air capture method is gaining traction, according to Custelcean, the process needs to be further developed and aggressively implemented to be effective in combatting global warming. Also, they need to gain a better understanding of the guanidine material and how it could benefit existing and future carbon capture and storage applications.

The research team is now studying the material’s crystalline structure and properties with the unique neutron scattering capabilities at ORNL’s Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a DOE Office of Science User Facility. By analyzing carbonate binding in the crystals, they hope to better understand the molecular mechanism of carbon dioxide capture and release and help design the next generation of sorbents.

The scientists also plan to evaluate the use of solar energy as a sustainable heat source to release the bound carbon dioxide from the crystals.

Reference:

The study titled, “CO2 Capture from Ambient Air by Crystallization with a Guanidine Sorbent,” included Charles Seipp of ORNL and the University of Texas at Austin; Neil Williams of ORNL and the University of Tennessee; and ORNL’s Michelle Kidder and Radu Custelcean.

The research was funded by DOE’s Office of Science.

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