Revolution-Green http://revolution-green.com Alternative Energy News Sun, 26 Feb 2017 21:51:15 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.2 Mike Nunnerley’s SMD Cell http://revolution-green.com/mike-nunnerleys-smd-cell/ http://revolution-green.com/mike-nunnerleys-smd-cell/#comments Sun, 26 Feb 2017 21:51:15 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14881 Mike has been working on the SMD cell for quite a while, and he’s now ready to go public with the results. At base, this is a way to turn Iron (or some other metal) and electricity (from solar power or other intermittent source) into Hydrogen gas as a storage medium. The big advantage of […]

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Mike has been working on the SMD cell for quite a while, and he’s now ready to go public with the results. At base, this is a way to turn Iron (or some other metal) and electricity (from solar power or other intermittent source) into Hydrogen gas as a storage medium. The big advantage of the process is that it produces no Oxygen from electrolysis (which is normally an unwanted by-product) but instead oxidises the sacrificial metal with it and gains more Hydrogen as a result. The Hydrogen can then be used later to either produce heat or electrical power when needed. He’s working on developments of the basic idea that may be better-suited to running an electric vehicle.

 

 

Most of the rest of this article will be Mike’s own descriptions:
The SMD hydrogen cell uses three electrodes, it works as an energy and a hydrogen producer depending on the cycling mode. One is the hydrogen electrode and is made of stainless steel, this is formed as a cylinder and has the biggest diameter, it is the only electrode which produces hydrogen.

The second electrode is the oxygen electrode which is made of nickel hydroxide and carbon pressed on to a nickel plated foil for good contact and electrical conduction. This is formed into a cylinder of smaller diameter than the hydrogen electrode and is contained within a fine mesh (Fig:3), the surface area is far greater than the hydrogen electrode. In the centre of the cylindrical cell is the third electrode, this is made of iron and is the sacrificial electrode in this cell.

It can be seen that this is in part a nickel iron battery, the difference here is it is not charged in a conventional way, and produces hydrogen with reduced input power. The battery side to this cell is charged by the absorption of oxygen creating nickel oxy-hydroxide (NiOOH) at the second electrode, this is a very fast charge, while at the same time as creating pure hydrogen on the outer electrode. The power for this comes from a super capacitor store bank which is charged on one cycle by the external solar, wind or off peak grid in series with the internal battery power generated by the Ni/Fe reaction within the cell. The iron electrode on discharge is oxidised to iron hydroxides, and in this case is a one way reaction as recharging is rapidly done by the oxidation of the nickel electrode.

As can be seen, the oxygen, which is not wanted, is put to use to generate electrical power. Over 30% of the power for creating hydrogen from water, can come from the chemical reaction of the unwanted oxygen, and all in the same cell through creative design. In practical systems these cells are linked in series and or parallel to gain the working power and hydrogen production required, there is no real limit to the number. The external power can be a fluctuating supply as in wind or solar, there is no start up or run down time required, and the resulting hydrogen can be stored or converted to SNG (methane) using the Sabatier reaction.

This system is ideal for power to gas, be it on or off grid, and has the smallest power to gas loss of any electrolysis system today producing hydrogen from water.

 

SMD is an answer for power to gas (methane), which can be put into the NG grid or bottles or in your car for that. This is already being done, (ETO gas), but the real cost of doing this is the cost of H2 from water using electrolysis.
The negative points are these for power to gas:-
1.   Best electrolysis is 80% creating both H2 and O2 together.
2.   The O2 is not required for power to gas 33.3% of the power is lost in the O2 being produced.
3.   Normal electrolysis is not easy to start and stop quickly (high temperatures involved)
4.   The real cost of production is not shown as it should be.

 

The positive of SMD:-
1.   The effective electrolysis is still 80%, but for H2 only, an effective equivalent of 104% for H2+O2 together. (energy exchange)
2.   The O2 is converted into power by using it to oxidise Ni, and later along with Fe (nickel/iron battery), discharged to charge the capacitor bank (1.2v per cell)  along with a reduced power external input, all in one cell.
3.   Easy, cost effective half bridge/mosfet control of changeover cycles
4.   Rapid start and stop (instant) for working with renewable energies (wind, solar).
5.   Long life Ni electrode (20yrs), cheap Fe electrode, (which can be reprocessed if need be, and produce O2).
6.   The internal Ni/Fe battery charges nearly instantly with the reaction of the oxygen “in situ”.

 

Storing energy in a universal gas such as methane, is the future if the hydrogen can be produced at the right cost. The Sabatier reaction is very exothermic, so much so that the 20% energy lost to heat can be used to produce more power for the electrolysis, this last point is overlooked, on purpose!!!! I think so, don’t create waves I’m told, but we are talking high grade heat here (SH steam).

 

Little by little pilot plants of power to gas are being built, distribution is via the NG grid, it is a very viable solution to energy storage and distribution, it also has a zero carbon footprint.

 

Mike’s techniques have been copied by a Chinese group, and they wrote up their results and submitted them to Nature at http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11741 which also gives a good overview of the ideas.

 

Mike himself has published on Researchgate at
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313660479_Phase_IV_SMD_Hydrogen_only_from_water which details the Phase IV version, and he’s working on Phase V at the moment which is not yet ready for publication.

 

Since the sacrificial metal doesn’t need to be pure, the system can use scrap Iron which then produces Iron ore that can be usefully fed into normal Iron production processes. This process can use renewable power when it’s there in excess of requirements and produce about 50% more Hydrogen from it than would otherwise be the case, thus making Hydrogen a cheaper fuel than it would otherwise be. Though I’m not expecting we’ll really be going to Hydrogen-powered cars because of the risks of non-professional handling of it, as an industrial fuel it’s great and non-polluting, and of course you will have trained people working with it.

 

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Wind turbines with flexible blades found to be more efficient http://revolution-green.com/wind-turbines-flexible-blades-found-efficient/ http://revolution-green.com/wind-turbines-flexible-blades-found-efficient/#comments Sat, 25 Feb 2017 12:26:30 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14869 Wind Turbines are often proving to be more economical than fossil fuel fired power stations both in capital costs and generation costs. With the use of HVDC power lines electricity can be efficiently distributed over thousand of kilometers. This new research could be a massive leap in making wind turbines more cost effective and usable […]

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Wind Turbines are often proving to be more economical than fossil fuel fired power stations both in capital costs and generation costs. With the use of HVDC power lines electricity can be efficiently distributed over thousand of kilometers.

This new research could be a massive leap in making wind turbines more cost effective and usable in marginal areas.

Using flexible blades: Abstract

Wind energy is becoming a significant alternative solution for future energy production. Modern turbines now benefit from engineering expertise, and a large variety of different models exists, depending on the context and needs. However, classical wind turbines are designed to operate within a narrow zone centred around their optimal working point. This limitation prevents the use of sites with variable wind to harvest energy, involving significant energetic and economic losses. Here, we present a new type of bioinspired wind turbine using elastic blades, which passively deform through the air loading and centrifugal effects. This work is inspired from recent studies on insect flight and plant reconfiguration, which show the ability of elastic wings or leaves to adapt to the wind conditions and thereby to optimize performance. We show that in the context of energy production, the reconfiguration of the elastic blades significantly extends the range of operating regimes using only passive, non-consuming mechanisms. The versatility of the new turbine model leads to a large increase of the converted energy rate, up to 35%. The fluid/elasticity mechanisms involved for the reconfiguration capability of the new blades are analysed in detail, using experimental observations and modelling.

 

(a) Three-bladed turbine model used in this work. (b) Sketch of a blade section in the rotating frame of reference, showing symbols and notation. During the operating regime, the blade is subjected to the aerodynamic force (decomposed into lift fL and drag fD), which tends to fold the blade through the action of the torque ma, and the centrifugal force fC, which conversely tends to align the blade with the rotation plane due to the torque mc exerted in the opposite direction. As a result, the blade bends, which modifies the angle of attack β between the apparent wind V and the blade and θ, the angle between the blade and the plane of rotation. (c) Bent elastic blades for three characteristic values of the speed ratio λ measured at the tip blade. The red profile shows the reference configuration (λ=0, θ0=28°). The two white profiles show the bent blades for (λ=0.25, θ=30.8°) and (λ=2.35, θ=25.3°). Credit: (c) Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science (2017). DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0726

Narrow band of oncoming wind speeds

Current wind turbines are efficient at specific working points . This limitation is mainly due to the fact that for a given blade design (setting local angles of attack and aerodynamic coefficients along the blade), the turbine reaches its best performance over a narrow band of oncoming wind speeds and turbine loads [1,2].

As a consequence, the energy conversion is poor when the turbine is working far from its operating regime. For current installation, this difficulty is generally overcome either by seeking sites with stable and constant head wind or by introducing active motorized controls of blade pitch angle [2] or active trailing edge flaps [3]. Nevertheless, a large amount of potential available wind energy is not converted by the turbines, leading to a significant energetic and economic losses. This lack of versatility limits the development of small or middle-sized turbine models and the expansion of short supply chains.

This work introduces a solution to this technological limitation, using flexible blades inspired by the flapping flight of insects and reconfiguration of plants. Slender elastic structures, such as wings or leaves, adjust the torque exerted by the fluid pressure when bending through the action of the incoming wind, changing the balance between external mechanical loads [46]. Plants bend during wind conditions, which reduces drag and avoids damage [79]. Insects, on the other hand, use this ability to change the direction of the pressure forces to improve thrust production, without extra input energy [1012]. Along the same line of thought, flexible blades can be implemented on wind turbines.

Blade flexibility is currently a centre of attention in the turbine community. The principal concern has been the structural instability of large size turbines operating at high tip speed ratios. The main goal of these works has been to include blade flexibility into models and simulations to give accurate predictions of the blade bending and flutter threshold [2,13,14]. On the other hand, blade flexibility has also been perceived as a way to improve the performance of the rotor. Several numerical studies have addressed chordwise bending of the blade through the action of the aerodynamic load and have shown that performance could be increased in specific cases [1521], but did not consider the blade pitch angle as a key parameter. This parameter is, however, crucial for flexible blades because the main property of flexibility is to allow the pitch angle to dynamically adapt to the wind forcing and extracted power. We propose an experimental and theoretical study covering a relevant range of the parameter space.

We show that the most notable feature of the blade reconfiguration capability is to keep the mechanical system efficient away from the optimal operating point (in the case of wind conditions, which are below or above the nominal speed, for instance). This crucial feature can significantly extend the performance range of wind turbines beyond their specific working regime. Our experimental results show an increase in potential energy production up to 35%, which is obtained using passive, non-consuming mechanisms, from the reservoir of energy available at non-nominal wind conditions.

More information:

I highly recommend going to this link to see the extensive experimental data

V. Cognet et al. Bioinspired turbine blades offer new perspectives for wind energy, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science (2017).LINK: DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0726

 

 

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Tiny turbine power removes EV range anxiety http://revolution-green.com/tiny-turbine-power-removes-ev-range-anxiety/ http://revolution-green.com/tiny-turbine-power-removes-ev-range-anxiety/#comments Sat, 25 Feb 2017 11:48:03 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14864 One thing that puzzles me is why electric car manufacturers do not us a small fossil fuel powered generator to extend the range of electric vehicles. They could either save costs buy using less batteries or have an unlimited range so long as you have fuel. I would be first inline to purchase one. This […]

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One thing that puzzles me is why electric car manufacturers do not us a small fossil fuel powered generator to extend the range of electric vehicles. They could either save costs buy using less batteries or have an unlimited range so long as you have fuel. I would be first inline to purchase one.

This product launched late last year may just fill that gap.

MiTRE Range Extender

The MiTRE (aka Micro Turbine Range Extender) is a tiny form factor motor and generator which can charge up an EV battery as the car is moving. No more worrying about flat batteries!

The MiTRE is around 40% smaller and 50% lighter than an equivalent piston engine device, and can be used both to help extend the range of an electric car, and also enable manufacturers to make EVs with smaller batteries in them.

The unit was launched embedded inside a custom made vehicle, although it was not shown running. The unit can generate power from petrol, diesel or eventually biofuel, although the company is still working on perfecting the latter two fuels. The key thing about the turbine is the fact that it can keep a battery topped up while a car is cruising at 70 mph on a highway, which is perfect for those longer trips. Of course the total range will depend on the size of your fuel tank!

The company was coy about eventual pricing, although a figure of around £1000 per unit at volumes of around 1000 units were mentioned. This means that in larger volumes it could even become attractive for the after market, with retro kits being sold to existing EV owners. The hybrid market could be about to get very interesting indeed.

 

 

Source and full Report

MiTRE – micro turbine could destroy range anxiety in EVs at last [Video Report]

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Confined nanoparticles improve hydrogen storage materials performance http://revolution-green.com/confined-nanoparticles-improve-hydrogen-storage-materials-performance/ http://revolution-green.com/confined-nanoparticles-improve-hydrogen-storage-materials-performance/#comments Sat, 25 Feb 2017 11:30:48 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14860 The transport industry 2 decades ago felt that hydrogen was the fuel of the future. Billions were spent in the last two decades developing fuel cell technology and hydrogen powered vehicles.  At the same time electric cars were under development. Both technologies had  problems. Storing enough fuel or energy for at least a 500km trip […]

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The transport industry 2 decades ago felt that hydrogen was the fuel of the future. Billions were spent in the last two decades developing fuel cell technology and hydrogen powered vehicles.  At the same time electric cars were under development.

Both technologies had  problems. Storing enough fuel or energy for at least a 500km trip and a refueling infra structure. During the last two decades we have seen massive advances in energy storage for electric vehicle and the grid provides the refueling infra structure. With hydrogen no real advances have been made with the energy storage.

The net result is the electric car is now becoming n everyday reality, while hydrogen powered vehicles are really in small volumes and restricted to areas of refueling infrastructure. Despite this research continues in hydrogen and hopefully many advances will be made in the near furture. This is the story of one of those advance.

Nanoconfinement

Sometimes, you have to go small to win big. That is the approach a multilab, interdisciplinary team took in using nanoparticles and a novel nanoconfinement system to develop a method to change hydrogen storage properties.

Hydrogenation forms a mixture of lithium amide and hydride (light blue) as an outer shell around a lithium nitride particle (dark blue) nanoconfined in carbon. Nanoconfinement suppresses all other intermediate phases to prevent interface formation, which has the effect of dramatically improving the hydrogen storage performance. CREDIT: Sandia National Laboratories

High-capacity hydrogen storage

This discovery could enable the creation of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials capable of quick refueling, improving the performance of emerging hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand, collaborated on the research, which was published Feb. 8 in the journal Advanced Materials Interfaces.

The work was funded by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office and the Boeing Co.

Accelerating the uptake and release of hydrogen

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are powered by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen inside a fuel cell. While oxygen is provided by air, the hydrogen must be stored separately on the vehicle. Current fuel cell electric vehicles store hydrogen as a high-pressure gas.

A solid material can act like a sponge for the absorption and release of hydrogen, in chemical terms hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. Thus using such a hydrogen storage material could increase how much hydrogen can be stored. The material must be able to store enough hydrogen for the vehicle to go at least 300 miles before refueling.

“There are two critical problems with existing sponges for hydrogen storage,” said Sandia chemist Vitalie Stavila. “Most can’t soak up enough hydrogen for cars. Also, the sponges don’t release and absorb hydrogen fast enough, especially compared to the 5 minutes needed for fueling.”

In this effort, Stavila explained, the interdisciplinary team of scientists worked closely on the synthesis, characterization and modeling to improve the properties of lithium nitride, a promising hydrogen storage sponge. The team also developed a fundamental understanding of why nanosizing improves the hydrogen storage properties of this material.

Confining the space

The idea came from Mahidol University graduate student Natchapol “Golf” Poonyayant, who approached Sandia with the idea of using nanoconfinement to enhance hydrogen storage reactions in nitrogen-containing compounds. Working with the Sandia researchers, Poonyayant, his adviser, Pasit Pakawatpanurut, and fellow Mahidol student Natee “Game” Angboonpong found that liquid ammonia could be used as a gentle and efficient solvent for introducing metals and nitrogen into the pockets of carbon nanoparticles, producing nanoconfined lithium nitride particles.

The new material that emerged from Poonyayant’s idea showed some unusual and unexpected properties. First, the amount of lithium nitride in the carbon nanoparticle host was quite high for a nanoconfined system, about 40 percent. Second, the nanoconfined lithium nitride absorbed and released hydrogen more rapidly than the bulk material. Furthermore, once the lithium nitride had been hydrogenated, it also released hydrogen in only one step and much faster than the bulk system that took two steps.

“In other words, the chemical pathways for both hydrogen absorption and release in this hydrogen storage material were dramatically changed for the better,” said Sandia chemist Lennie Klebanoff.

Understanding the puzzle

To better understand the mechanism responsible for this improvement, the Sandia scientists reached out to computational scientist Brandon Wood of LLNL, a leading expert in the theory of solid-state reactions. Wood and his LLNL colleagues Tae Wook Heo, Jonathan Lee and Keith Ray discovered that the reason for the unusual behavior was the energy associated with two material interfaces.

Since the lithium nitride nanoparticles are only 3 nanometers wide, even the smallest energetically unfavorable process is avoided in the hydrogen storage properties. For lithium nitride nanoparticles undergoing hydrogenation reactions, the avoidance of unfavorable intermediates — extra steps in the chemical process — increases efficiency.

Taking the path of least resistance, the material undergoes a single-step path to full hydrogenation. Similarly, once hydrogenated, the nanoparticles release hydrogen by the lowest energy pathway available, which in this case is direct hydrogen release back to lithium nitride.

“In this way, the nanointerfaces drive the hydrogen storage properties when the materials are made very small, for example with nanoconfinement,” said Wood. “The purposeful control of nanointerfaces offers a new way to optimize hydrogen storage reaction chemistry.”

The next step

According to the Sandia and LLNL researchers, the next step is to further understand how the dehydrogenated and hydrogenated phases of lithium nitride change at the nanoscale. This is a stiff challenge to the team, as it requires imaging different chemical phases within a particle that is only several nanometers wide.

The team will draw on the capabilities within the DOE’s Hydrogen Storage Materials Advanced Research Consortium (HyMARC), led by Sandia and comprised additionally of scientists from LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The team plans to use spatially resolved synchrotron radiation from LBNL’s Advanced Light Source to probe interface chemistry and structure.

In addition, since the nanoporous carbon host is “dead weight” from a hydrogen storage perspective, the team is examining ways to “lighten the load” and find carbon materials with more nanopockets for a given carbon mass.

Sad Loss

“We are thrilled with this technical advance and excited to take on the work ahead,” said Klebanoff. “But it’s bittersweet. Golf, who inspired this work and conducted many of the syntheses, died tragically at the age of 25 during the writing of this paper. The world has lost a talented young man and we have lost a dear friend whom we miss. This work and its published account are dedicated to Golf and his family.”

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ECO-GEN JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator http://revolution-green.com/eco-gen-joulebox-hybrid-generator/ http://revolution-green.com/eco-gen-joulebox-hybrid-generator/#comments Fri, 24 Feb 2017 03:24:44 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14840 We have covered this before.  I recently received an email with a link to video asking for an updated review. The original stories:  http://revolution-green.com/perpetual-energy-lcc/ NetZero Power Generators or Déjà Vu? Update   The Claim ECO-GEN Energy has developed the JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator which will change the world forever.  ECO-GEN has exclusive, patent/pending technology to produce clean green energy with […]

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We have covered this before.  I recently received an email with a link to video asking for an updated review. The original stories: 

http://revolution-green.com/perpetual-energy-lcc/

NetZero Power Generators or Déjà Vu? Update

 

The Claim

ECO-GEN Energy has developed the JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator which will change the world forever.  ECO-GEN has exclusive, patent/pending technology to produce clean green energy with the JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator that is more efficient than anything else on the market today.  Rather than a rooftop full of solar panels that takes away from the design and beauty of the property we install 4-8 solar panels and a metal box that is approximately 8′ L  X  6′ W  X  6′ H. Unlike typical solar systems that only produce energy 6 hours a day at best, our generator produces energy 24/7/365.  What used to be a monthly expense for the homeowner now becomes an income generator with Net Metering.

My Reaction

BS (This is an abbreviation)

The Video

This would have to be one of the funniest videos I have come across trying to describe how they can turn 200 watts into one HP (745 watts) If you could do that it would be a simple matter of powering another generator to provide the source power and effectively close loop it with 400 to 500 watts to spare after losses. They have difficulty in doing this (Suprise, Suprise, Suprise)

The terminology and explanation of the science is at best comical and in reality delusional. Fast forward to the 7 minute mark of the video and listen.

 

The Product

The JB-60:  A 60 kW JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator system that produces + 525,600 annual kWh of electricity.  The JB-60 is usually installed with 3 solar panels.  This unit is usually installed for commercial facilities.

Any units can be connected together in a “string” to generate more power.  As an example, 10 of the JB-60 units would produce + 5,256,000 annual kWh if connected at the same location.

Our JouleBox™ Hybrid Generator annual production is estimated by multiplying the size 60 times 24  hours per day, times 365 days per year to get annual kWh.  Example: 60 X  24  X 365 = 525,600 at the rated 80% power factor.  Maximum output is 657,000 kWh annually @ 100% PF.  When you compare the Hybrid Solar Generator to solar only systems that produce energy only 5-6 average hours per day, it is clear to see the Hybrid Solar Generator is the superior choice.

Understanding The Technology

9 Proven Technologies have been combined to generate electricity 24/7/365.

1. Solar Panels are used to qualify for Incentives. Solar Panels can be replaced with natural Wind  Turbines if wind incentives are preferred. Neither are needed for exports that do not have government incentives.

2. Aluminum Magnetic Flywheels run continuously to produce Low Voltage, High Amperage Electricity.

3. Lithium Ion Battery Brick with patented Serial and Parallel wiring to Charge and Discharge constantly.

4. Ultra high efficiency Blowers are powered off the Lithium Ion Battery Brick to provide manufactured wind 24/7/365.

5. Vortex Reduction Chamber (VRC). Manufactured wind is sent through a VRC to increase Force with reduced energy because of the effects of Wind Cubing in Rotational Energy.

6. The Power Torque Transfer Turbine transfers maximum Force with less energy which turn the generators.

7. High Efficiency Generators for greater durability and reliability. We use electronic controllers to maximize efficiency and maintain a constant RPM.

8. Power Q – controls the power quality output to sync with the grid and maintain proper harmonics. Each system is configured with the right voltage and Hz to connect to the grid without any power surges that could damage equipment.

9. GPS monitoring. Each unit is licensed for a location and is continuously monitored so that all controls and software are tamper proof.

We have protected the Intellectual Property (IP) with layers of use patents, copyrights and other IP. The software is burned into the chips which eliminates the risk of reverse engineering. All units are GPS equipped with licensing agreements for installation at a specified location. Location modification is allowed under the licensing agreement with notification. Any attempts to tamper with the equipment will destroy the equipment and void any warranties.

Critics

Eco-Gen’s website looks to be organised to operate as a US-based scam, with instructions how to purchase and use their product in conjunction with a small solar installation, getting the US government to pay the bulk of the cost.  Even O’Doherty has said publicly that solar is inappropriate technology for the Daintree.
The Eco-Gen website and location is also the home of other businesses that seem to have generated lots of complaints, including SunAmerica Solar, SunX Solar, Solar Soma Energy, and First Solar Inc.  It has all the usual scammer-type language vague explanations of what the technology actually does, fanciful claims of clean, green, low-cost energy, claims of “numerous” patents that can’t be found anywhere, and other bullshit.

A recent attempt to gain permisson to hook the system to the Grin in North Queensland Australia recieved this reply from the local grid power company Ergon. “answer was an emphatic “NO”.  They cautiously referred to the technology as “unproven”.

Source: http://www.hillbillywatch.com/2016/04/4ca-and-john-mackenzie-again-ground.html

Definitely looks like a scam. At best it seems to be an attempt to scam the govt green energy support mechanisms by tacking a couple of token solar panels onto a fossil fuel gas generator. At worst it is scamming the buyer as well by charging them lots of money for said gas generator. If it is just the former then you can bet the authorities will catch up with any loophole before long. Invest in proper renewable energy instead. Anything hidden in a box is always suspect. All the BS about protecting their intellectual rights is just that. No decent company would put out a product without getting the patents etc properly in place first as, if it were any good, competitors would immediately pull one apart and file patents themselves.

Source: https://www.quora.com/How-do-the-so-called-Joule-Box-hybrid-generators-work

Fair enough – thanks for everyone’s efforts in researching this. It sounds like the bottom line is that it is supposed to be a solar panel driving a fan, driving a wind turbine, to multiply power. That makes it overunity, a violation of the laws of physics, a scam, and a topic inappropriate for PF. Alaskajoe, I hope we helped.

Source:  https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/verify-new-tech.830255/

Reference

http://ecogenenergy.info/products/

 

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Light-driven reaction converts carbon dioxide into fuel http://revolution-green.com/light-driven-reaction-converts-carbon-dioxide-fuel/ http://revolution-green.com/light-driven-reaction-converts-carbon-dioxide-fuel/#comments Thu, 23 Feb 2017 19:30:41 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14851 Sometimes mixed in with a research article I find a statement that  sparks of a whole line of thinking that has nothing to do with the main article. In this article that statement would be: “Effectively, plasmonic metal nanoparticles act like little antennas that absorb visible or ultraviolet light very efficiently and can do a […]

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Sometimes mixed in with a research article I find a statement that  sparks of a whole line of thinking that has nothing to do with the main article. In this article that statement would be: “Effectively, plasmonic metal nanoparticles act like little antennas that absorb visible or ultraviolet light very efficiently and can do a number of things like generate strong electric fields,” I think Simon might find this interesting given his latest line of research

Duke University researchers have developed tiny nanoparticles that help convert carbon dioxide into methane using only ultraviolet light as an energy source.

Duke University researchers have engineered rhodium nanoparticles (blue) that can harness the energy in ultraviolet light and use it to catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide to methane, a key building block for many types of fuels. CREDIT: Chad Scales

Having found a catalyst that can do this important chemistry using ultraviolet light, the team now hopes to develop a version that would run on natural sunlight, a potential boon to alternative energy.

Chemists have long sought an efficient, light-driven catalyst to power this reaction, which could help reduce the growing levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere by converting it into methane, a key building block for many types of fuels.

Not only are the rhodium nanoparticles made more efficient when illuminated by light, they have the advantage of strongly favoring the formation of methane rather than an equal mix of methane and undesirable side-products like carbon monoxide. This strong “selectivity” of the light-driven catalysis may also extend to other important chemical reactions, the researchers say.

“The fact that you can use light to influence a specific reaction pathway is very exciting,” said Jie Liu, the George B. Geller professor of chemistry at Duke University. “This discovery will really advance the understanding of catalysis.”

The paper appears online Feb. 23 in Nature Communications.

Despite being one of the rarest elements on Earth, rhodium plays a surprisingly important role in our everyday lives. Small amounts of the silvery grey metal are used to speed up or “catalyze” a number of key industrial processes, including those that make drugs, detergents and nitrogen fertilizer, and they even play a major role breaking down toxic pollutants in the catalytic converters of our cars.

Rhodium accelerates these reactions with an added boost of energy, which usually comes in the form of heat because it is easily produced and absorbed. However, high temperatures also cause problems, like shortened catalyst lifetimes and the unwanted synthesis of undesired products.

In the past two decades, scientists have explored new and useful ways that light can be used to add energy to bits of metal shrunk down to the nanoscale, a field called plasmonics.

“Effectively, plasmonic metal nanoparticles act like little antennas that absorb visible or ultraviolet light very efficiently and can do a number of things like generate strong electric fields,” said Henry Everitt, an adjunct professor of physics at Duke and senior research scientist at the Army’s Aviation and Missile RD&E Center at Redstone Arsenal, AL. “For the last few years there has been a recognition that this property might be applied to catalysis.”

Xiao Zhang, a graduate student in Jie Liu’s lab, synthesized rhodium nanocubes that were the optimal size for absorbing near-ultraviolet light. He then placed small amounts of the charcoal-colored nanoparticles into a reaction chamber and passed mixtures of carbon dioxide and hydrogen through the powdery material.

When Zhang heated the nanoparticles to 300 degrees Celsius, the reaction generated an equal mix of methane and carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas. When he turned off the heat and instead illuminated them with a high-powered ultraviolet LED lamp, Zhang was not only surprised to find that carbon dioxide and hydrogen reacted at room temperature, but that the reaction almost exclusively produced methane.

“We discovered that when we shine light on rhodium nanostructures, we can force the chemical reaction to go in one direction more than another,” Everitt said. “So we get to choose how the reaction goes with light in a way that we can’t do with heat.”

This selectivity — the ability to control the chemical reaction so that it generates the desired product with little or no side-products — is an important factor in determining the cost and feasibility of industrial-scale reactions, Zhang says.

“If the reaction has only 50 percent selectivity, then the cost will be double what it would be if the selectively is nearly 100 percent,” Zhang said. “And if the selectivity is very high, you can also save time and energy by not having to purify the product.”

Now the team plans to test whether their light-powered technique might drive other reactions that are currently catalyzed with heated rhodium metal. By tweaking the size of the rhodium nanoparticles, they also hope to develop a version of the catalyst that is powered by sunlight, creating a solar-powered reaction that could be integrated into renewable energy systems.

“Our discovery of the unique way light can efficiently, selectively influence catalysis came as a result of an on-going collaboration between experimentalists and theorists,” Liu said. “Professor Weitao Yang’s group in the Duke chemistry department provided critical theoretical insights that helped us understand what was happening. This sort of analysis can be applied to many important chemical reactions, and we have only just begun to explore this exciting new approach to catalysis.”

Reference

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE-1565657) and the Army Research Office (Award W911NF-15-1-0320). Additional support was provided by Duke University’s Katherine Goodman Stern Fellowship, the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and the Center for the Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under Award # DE-SC0012575.

CITATION: “Product selectivity in plasmonic photocatalysis for carbon dioxide hydrogenation,” Xiao Zhang, Xueqian Li, Du Zhang, Neil Qiang Su, Weitao Yang, Henry O. Everitt and Jie Liu. Nature Communications, Feb. 23, 2017. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14542

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Three layers of graphene reveals a new kind of magnet http://revolution-green.com/three-layers-graphene-reveals-new-kind-magnet/ http://revolution-green.com/three-layers-graphene-reveals-new-kind-magnet/#comments Thu, 23 Feb 2017 19:19:17 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14847 Metals have a large density of electrons and to be able to see the wave nature of electrons one has to make metallic wires that are only a few atoms wide. However, in graphene – one atom thick graphite — the density of electrons is much smaller and can be changed by making a transistor. […]

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Metals have a large density of electrons and to be able to see the wave nature of electrons one has to make metallic wires that are only a few atoms wide.

This is a spectrum of the three layer graphene as a function of magnetic field and density of electrons. CREDIT: Biswajit Datta, Mandar Deshmukh

However, in graphene – one atom thick graphite — the density of electrons is much smaller and can be changed by making a transistor. As a result of the low density of electrons the wave nature of electrons, as described by quantum mechanics, is easier to observe in graphene.

Often in metals like copper the electron is scattered every 100 nanometers, a distance roughly 1000 times smaller than the diameter of human hair, due to impurities and imperfections. Electrons can travel much longer in graphene, up to distances of 10 micrometer, a distance roughly 10 times smaller than the diameter of human hair. This is realized by sandwiching graphene between layers of boron nitride. The layers of boron nitride have few imperfections to impede the flow of electrons in graphene.

Once electrons travel long distances, implying there are few imperfections, one notices the faint whispers of electrons “talking to each other”. Reducing the imperfections is akin to making a room quiet to enable the faint whispers of electronic interactions to develop between many electrons.

In a study, led by PhD student Biswajit Datta, Professor Mandar Deshmukh’s group at TIFR realized just this kind of silence allowing electronic interactions to be observed in three layers of graphene. The study reveals a new kind of magnet and provides insight on how electronic devices using graphene could be made for fundamental studies as well as applications. This work discovers the magnetism of electrons in three layers of graphene at a low temperature of -272 Celsius. The magnetism of electrons arises from the coordinated “whispers” between many electrons.

http://www.tifr.res.in/

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Liquid hydrogen may be way forward for sustainable air travel http://revolution-green.com/liquid-hydrogen-may-way-forward-sustainable-air-travel/ http://revolution-green.com/liquid-hydrogen-may-way-forward-sustainable-air-travel/#comments Thu, 23 Feb 2017 19:06:27 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14844 Transport makes up around 20 percent of our energy use around the world That figure is set to grow, according to the International Energy Agency. With sustainable solutions in mind, a new study published by eminent physicist Jo Hermans in MRS Energy and Sustainability–A Review Journal (MRS E&S) looks at the energy efficiency of current […]

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Transport makes up around 20 percent of our energy use around the world

That figure is set to grow, according to the International Energy Agency. With sustainable solutions in mind, a new study published by eminent physicist Jo Hermans in MRS Energy and Sustainability–A Review Journal (MRS E&S) looks at the energy efficiency of current modes of transport–from bicycles to buses, from air transport to cruise ships– and concludes that liquid hydrogen seems to be a realistic option for what is probably the most problematic of transportation modes in terms of sustainability, future air travel.

Professor Hermans from Leiden University’s famous Huygen’s Laboratory acknowledges that oil-based liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel and kerosene will be hard to beat when it comes to how much energy they pack in relation to their volume and weight–not to mention the sheer convenience of using them to get from A to B.

The author of popular books such as Physics is Fun (2012) and Energy Survival Guide (2011) acknowledges that achieving sustainable transport in the post-fossil fuel era will be a huge challenge–but finds that liquid hydrogen could offer a potential solution for future air travel.

“Given the severe weight limitations for fuel in aircraft, liquid hydrogen may be a viable alternative in the long run,” he argues:

  • First, handling of liquid hydrogen would be carried out by professionals, which reduces the safety issues involved with liquid hydrogen to the same level of risk involved in handling kerosene.
  • Second, liquid hydrogen itself is very light (in fact, it is in a gaseous state at ordinary temperatures), which is an important advantage for air travel.
  • Third, the disadvantages of “boil off” (created by the low boiling point of liquid hydrogen) would be reduced in air travel because of the low outside temperature at cruising altitudes.

Hermans discounts the use of solar power for air travel without revolutionary changes in the airplane concept, but concludes that it seems wise to extend the availability of oil products as long as possible. However, he argues that the low cost of kerosene is a huge disincentive in this respect:

“It is a defect that kerosene is so irrationally cheap, which triggers much unnecessary air travel,” he writes. “A worldwide tax on kerosene–if at all politically possible–should be something to pursue.”

For road transport, Hermans argues that liquid hydrogen is not a viable option due to safety issues around handling it. He finds that electric vehicles offer the most promising solution. However, the challenge is to improve the performance of batteries to prolong the driving time for electric cars, as well as improving the performance of supercapacitors for more rapid charging of the batteries, he argues.

Direct driving using solar power is difficult, Hermans finds, even under a clear sky. However, students from Eindhoven University of Technology are among those that have taken up the challenge; they built a four-seater solar-powered family car that can be driven indefinitely under clear skies at a speed of about 43km/h. The only drawback is that the car is just over 1m tall and is not very comfortable. Hermans concludes that solar family cars will be feasible in future if consumers are willing to sacrifice on comfort.

Alternatively, Hermans writes, the most efficient way for us to reduce energy use in future is to reduce our mobility, for example, by having shorter distances between the workplace and home. “In other words, urban planning provides an important key,” he concludes.

Reference

MRS E&S, a journal of the Materials Research Society and Cambridge University Press, encourages contributions that provide viewpoints and perspectives on the all-important issue of how humankind can work towards, and build, a sustainable future.
The challenge of energy-efficient transportation, by Professor Jo Hermans
https://goo.gl/HFptW0

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Graphene oxide supercapacitor commercial prototype targeted within 2 years http://revolution-green.com/graphene-oxide-supercapacitor-commercial-prototype-targeted-within-2-years/ http://revolution-green.com/graphene-oxide-supercapacitor-commercial-prototype-targeted-within-2-years/#comments Wed, 22 Feb 2017 03:11:36 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14833 Well at least we have a timeline set for this project and I wish them every success. This is an update of the previous story we ran on this. Australia is devloping supercapacitors made from graphene oxide. They can store as much energy per kilogram as a lithium battery, but charges in minutes, or even […]

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Well at least we have a timeline set for this project and I wish them every success. This is an update of the previous story we ran on this.

Dr Han Lin presented the new supercapacitor at Fresh Science Victoria 2016.

Australia is devloping supercapacitors made from graphene oxide. They can store as much energy per kilogram as a lithium battery, but charges in minutes, or even seconds, and uses carbon instead of expensive lithium.

Large-scale production of the graphene that would be needed to produce these high-performance supercapacitors was once unachievable.

By using low-cost solution-based film synthesis techniques and a laser 3D printer, the researchers are able to produce graphene on a large scale at low cost.

In addition, the supercapacitors are very strong and flexible, and can therefore also be used to develop extremely flexible and thin batteries that could be built into wearable clothing and other personal accessories.

Key points: 
• 10x better energy density than competing devices
• 10,000x faster charge/discharge rates
• 10,000 charge/discharge cycles
• ultra thin and ultra light in weight
• highly flexible and integratable
• environmentally friendly due to the absence of chemicals
• Efficiencies offered through the use of laser printing technology and graphene oxide to create an ultra-efficient energy storage medium in a greatly simplified process.
• Innovative inter-digital design provides for a much shorter ionic path to maximise energy and power density.

Other parameters for the Supercapacitor    

Charge time 1-10 seconds

Cycle life Minimum 10,000 Cell voltage 1.5 to 2.3

Energy density (Wh/L) 5 (current state) 50- 60 (target for this project)

Power density (W/L) Up to 10,000

Cost per Wh $20 (current state) $0.30 (target for this project)

Service life 10 to 15 years 1 to 2 years

Disposal No special requirement, environmentally friendly

Investment

First Graphite Limited is to underwrite the spending of $2 million over a two year period to earn a 60% interest in the company that holds the international license First Graphite Limited (ASX:FGR) is pleased to advise of its next step in pursuit of the graphene technology initiative. FGR has entered into a binding Heads of Agreement with Kremford Pty Ltd relating to a graphene oxide based thin film supercapacitor technology for high performance and low cost energy storage; the Bolt Electricity Storage Technology Battery (BEST Battery).

Proof of concept 

The current proof-of-concept device has performed slightly higher than current batteries but with all of the advantages that come with physical storage of energy as opposed to chemical storage. The University believes that with additional product development and up-scaling the BEST (Bolt Energy Storage Technology) Battery can be taken from a laboratory success to a commercial prototype within the period of the Agreement. (2 years)

Earlier Story

At Swinburne, researchers have developed a new type of battery – a supercapacitor that charges extremely fast.

Batteries are essential in modern society, however, they have three main disadvantages:

  • They take ages to charge
  • They have a limited life
  • They’re harmful for the environment and require special disposal processes

In addition, they may explode if they are defective or improperly handled.

The new supercapacitor can be charged in seconds, used millions of times, and is environmentally friendly.

It is also safer than ordinary batteries when mistreated and will not explode under any circumstances.

“Previously, a major problem with supercapacitors has been their low capacity to store energy,” says researcher Dr Han Lin.

“Now we have overcome this problem by making these supercapacitors from graphene, a material that has a very large surface area available to store energy.

“Our supercapacitor is extremely efficient, as it charges in a matter of seconds and holds a larger charge for a longer time because it consists of multiple sheets of graphene – creating a very large surface area on which to store energy.

“What’s more, charging and discharging won’t degrade the battery’s quality, so it can theoretically last for a lifetime – a unique property in the world of batteries.”

Large-scale production possible

Dr Lin says large-scale production of the graphene that would be needed to produce these high-performance supercapacitors was once unachievable.

By using low-cost solution-based film synthesis techniques and a laser 3D printer, the researchers are able to produce graphene on a large scale at low cost.

In addition, the supercapacitors are very strong and flexible, and can therefore also be used to develop extremely flexible and thin batteries that could be built into wearable clothing and other personal accessories.

The research has been funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project grant.

Dr Lin presented the new supercapacitor at Fresh Science Victoria 2016 earlier this year.

Reference: 

http://www.firstgraphite.com.au/attachments/article/144/20170119-Supercapacitor%20release.pdf

http://www.swinburne.edu.au/news/latest-news/2016/08/superfast-charging-everlasting-batteries.php

 

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New hydronium-ion battery presents opportunity for more sustainable energy storage http://revolution-green.com/new-hydronium-ion-battery-presents-opportunity-sustainable-energy-storage/ http://revolution-green.com/new-hydronium-ion-battery-presents-opportunity-sustainable-energy-storage/#comments Tue, 21 Feb 2017 10:05:02 +0000 http://revolution-green.com/?p=14828 A new type of battery developed by scientists at Oregon State University shows promise for sustainable, high-power energy storage. Another battery story (just what you all have been waiting for) It’s the world’s first battery to use only hydronium ions as the charge carrier. The new battery provides an additional option for researchers, particularly in […]

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A new type of battery developed by scientists at Oregon State University shows promise for sustainable, high-power energy storage.

A simulated PTCDA unit cell incorporating two hydronium ions. Crystalline organic solids are naturally excellent host electrodes for hydronium ions.

Another battery story (just what you all have been waiting for)

It’s the world’s first battery to use only hydronium ions as the charge carrier. The new battery provides an additional option for researchers, particularly in the area of stationary storage.

Stationary storage refers to batteries in a permanent location that store grid power – including power generated from alternative energy sources such as wind turbines or solar cells – for use on a standby or emergency basis.

Hydronium, also known as H3O+, is a positively charged ion produced when a proton is added to a water molecule. Researchers in the OSU College of Science have demonstrated that hydronium ions can be reversibly stored in an electrode material consisting of perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydridem, or PTCDA. This material is an organic, crystalline, molecular solid. The battery, created in the Department of Chemistry at Oregon State, uses dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte.

Graduate student Xingfeng Wang was the first author on the study, which has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition, a publication of the German Chemical Society.

Paradigm-shifting opportunity?

“This may provide a paradigm-shifting opportunity for more sustainable batteries,” said Xiulei Ji, assistant professor of chemistry at OSU and the corresponding author on the research. “It doesn’t use lithium or sodium or potassium to carry the charge, and just uses acid as the electrolyte. There’s a huge natural abundance of acid so it’s highly renewable and sustainable.”

Ji points out that until now, cations – ions with a positive charge – that have been used in batteries have been alkali metal, alkaline earth metals or aluminum. “No nonmetal cations were being considered seriously for batteries,” he said.

The study observed a big dilation of the PTCDA lattice structure during intercalation – the process of its receiving ions between the layers of its structure. That meant the electrode was being charged, and the PTCDA structure expanded, by hydronium ions, rather than extremely tiny protons, which are already used in some batteries.

“Organic solids are not typically contemplated as crystalline electrode materials, but many are very crystalline, arranged in a very ordered structure,” Ji said. “This PTCDA material has a lot of internal space between its molecule constituents so it provides an opportunity for storing big ions and good capacity.” The hydronium ions also migrate through the electrode structure with comparatively low “friction,” which translates to high power.

“It’s not going to power electric cars,” Ji said. “But it does provide an opportunity for battery researchers to go in a new direction as they look for new alternatives for energy storage, particularly for stationary grid storage.”

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