Battery research could triple range of electric vehicles
    Using electrostatic fields to manipulate plants and animals

    I have decided to update this story as it could be a significant breakthrough. Here are some more links: 

    I have also added this from one of the many articles covering this. It is at odds of the power densities,we published so at least one of them might be correct.

    “By Thibado’s calculations, a single ten micron by ten micron piece of graphene could produce ten microwatts of power. It mightn’t sound impressive, but given you could fit more than 20,000 of these squares on the head of a pin, a small amount of graphene at room temperature could feasibly power something small like a wrist watch indefinitely. This would mean one square centimetre gives ten watts of electrical power.”

    My question still remains it is scalable ? If it is how do you do the heat exchange?

    Using the Natural Motion of 2D Materials to Create a New Source of Clean Energy
    Nov. 21, 2017
    https://news.uark.edu/articles/40324/using-the-natural-motion-of-2d-materials-to-create-a-new-source-of-clean-energy

    Strange Atomic Ripples in Graphene Could Unlock Clean, Limitless Energy
    Holy crap. MIKE MCRAE 24 NOV 2017

    Physicists Just Found a Loophole in Graphene That Could Unlock Clean, Limitless Energy
    November 29, 2017

    Original Story 

    We already have Free Energy Sources and many ways to harvest them. IE solar, wind, thermal and kinetic. Graphene if maintained at a certain temperature, (room temperature) will continuously vibrate.  In this research they are harvesting electrical energy via a Vibration Energy Harvester from the Graphene.

    The only question that remains is can it be scaled up? 

    Is It possible to capture energy from graphene’s ripples as an endless source of clean energy?

    Graphene is a sheet of individual carbon atoms arranged in a chicken-wire-like pattern. It’s weird stuff, an electrically two-dimensional object in that its charge carriers — its electrons — are only capable of moving in two directions. It does have a little trick by which it gets a third dimension, though: Brownian motion, in this case, continuous, tiny, random movements in its atoms that ultimately cause the sheet to ripple upward and downward. Picture waves moving across a body of water. And now, a team of physicists from the University of Arkansas led by Paul Thibado have found it’s possible to capture energy from graphene’s ripples as an endless source of clean energy.

    Graphene on copper from Thibado’s lab Credit: RESEARCH FRONTIERS

    Brownian motion was first discovered way back, in 1827, and as a naturally occurring phenomenon, scientists ever since have wondered if there was a way to harness its energy. Leave it to weird graphene to make that possible by doing it on an atomic scale.

    sam

    Thibado’s microscope (RESEARCH FRONTIERS)

     Vibration Energy Harvester

    Thibado and his students were measuring the movement of graphene sheets, laid atop a copper grid for support, through a scanning tunneling microscope (or STM). The measurements didn’t make any sense, really, with each observation producing different data.

    Thibado tells Research Frontiers, “The students felt we weren’t going to learn anything useful, but I wondered if we were asking too simple a question,” in thinking about the movement of the whole graphene sheet. So they studied measurements in smaller and smaller chunks, until they arrived at a single ripple, at which point things began to at least suggest some kind of governing logic.

    When they zeroed in on measurements of a single point, “like looking at a buoy which only moves up and down in the ocean,” to use Thibado’s metaphor, they saw it: Tiny Brownian motion combined with larger, coordinated movements, a combination referred to as Lévy flights, that caused a sheet to flip up and down in ripples, similar to the motion produced by flexing a thin sheet of metal. It was the first time this had been observed at the atomic scale, and Thibado and his students published their research in Physical Review Letters.

    To exist, the 2D material had to be cheating in some way, acting as a 3D material in order to provide some level of robustness.It turns out the ‘loophole’ was the random jiggling of atoms popping back and forth, giving the 2D sheet of graphene a handy third dimension.In other words, graphene was possible because it wasn’t perfectly flat at all, but vibrated on an atomic level in such a way that its bonds didn’t spontaneously unravel.

    To accurately measure the level of this jiggling, physicist Paul Thibado recently led a team of graduate students in a simple study. They laid sheets of graphene across a supportive copper grid and observed the changes in the atoms’ positions using a scanning tunneling microscope.

    While they could record the bobbing of atoms in the graphene, the numbers didn’t really fit any expected model. They couldn’t reproduce the data they were collecting from one trial to the next.  “The students felt we weren’t going to learn anything useful,” says Thibado, “but I wondered if we were asking too simple a question.” Thibado pushed the experiment into a different direction, searching for a pattern by changing the way they looked at the data.”We separated each image into sub-images,” says Thibado.

    “Looking at large-scale averages hid the different patterns. Each region of a single image, when viewed over time, produced a more meaningful pattern.”

    The team quickly found the sheets of graphene were buckling in way not unlike the snapping back and forth of a bent piece of thin metal as it’s twisted from the sides.

    Patterns of small, random fluctuations combining to form sudden, dramatic shifts are known as Lévy flights. While they’ve been observed in complex systems of biology and climate, this was the first time they’d been seen on an atomic scale.

    Harvesting the energy

    By measuring the rate and scale of these graphene waves, Thibado figured it might be possible to harness it as an ambient temperature power source. So long as the graphene’s temperature allowed the atoms to shift around uncomfortably, it would continue to ripple and bend.

    The insight that graphene’s ripples are naturally occurring is the “key to using the motion of 2D materials as a source of harvestable energy,” says Thibado. Unlike other materials’ individual atoms moving randomly, the carbon atoms in graphene remain connected in their layer and thus move together, which allows the energy from those ripples to be captured using nanotechnology.

    Thibado has invented the Vibration Energy Harvester, or VEH, for doing this, and he’s been awarded a provisional patent for his device that can run tiny motors.

    While the amount of energy produced by each graphene layer is minuscule, it’s easy to see how it can scale upwards.

    Thibado’s been working with pieces of graphene a mere 10 microns across, and whose Lévy flights measure only 10 nanometers by 10 nanometers to produce 10 picowatts of power. Still, you can fit 20,000 such pieces on the head of a pin. A thin membrane of graphene layers could power a watch forever without the need for recharging, and imagine the possibilities for large “batteries” built from graphene: They could run indefinitely, never need recharging, and be absolutely clean.

    Video Interview

    Future Research

    As exciting as they are, these applications still need to be investigated. Fortunately Thibado is already working with scientists at the US Naval Research Laboratory to see if the concept has legs. For an impossible molecule, graphene has become something of a wonder material that has turned physics on its head.

    It’s already being touted as a building block for future conductors. Perhaps we’ll also be seeing it power the future of a new field of electronic devices as well.

    Research Paper

    Anomalous Dynamical Behavior of Freestanding Graphene Membranes
    M. L. Ackerman,1 P. Kumar,1 M. Neek-Amal,2,† P. M. Thibado,1,* F. M. Peeters,3 and Surendra Singh1

    Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA 2
    Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, 16875-163 Lavizan, Tehran, Iran

    Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen, Belgium
    (Received 6 May 2016; published 13 September 2016)

    https://thibado.uark.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/316/2017/06/PhysRevLett.117.126801.pdf

    How to make Graphene

     

     

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