Given our coverage of science and energy I thought this was of interest to many of our readers. Many thanks to TRM for finding this gem which which will be debated for some time to come by the theorists
I was going to pay to reproduce the article here but the magazine wanted $690 ,so you have the link, some other links and some highlights.
Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say.: Edwin Cartlidge, 25 May 2016,
Nature Weekly international Journal of Science
A laboratory experiment in Hungary has spotted an anomaly in radioactive decay that could be the signature of a previously unknown fifth fundamental force of nature, physicists say – if the finding holds up.
Attila Krasznahorkay at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences’s Institute for Nuclear Research in Debrecen, Hungary, and his colleagues reported their surprising result in 2015 on the arXiv preprint server, and this January in the journal Physical Review Letters1. But the report – which posited the existence of a new, light boson only 34 times heavier than the electron – was largely overlooked.
Then, on 25 April, a group of US theoretical physicists brought the finding to wider attention by publishing its own analysis of the result on arXiv2. The theorists showed that the data didn’t conflict with any previous experiments – and concluded that it could be evidence for a fifth fundamental force. “We brought it out from relative obscurity,” says Jonathan Feng, at the University of California, Irvine, the lead author of the arXiv report.
Observation of Anomalous Internal Pair Creation in 8Be:
A Possible Signature of a Light, Neutral Boson A.J. Krasznahorkay,∗ M. Csatl´os, L. Csige, Z. G´acsi, J. Guly´as, M. Hunyadi, I. Kuti, B.M. Nyak´o, L. Stuhl, J. Tim´ar, T.G. Tornyi, and Zs. Vajta Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen, Hungary T.J. Ketel Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands A. Krasznahorkay CERN, Geneva, Switzerland and Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen, Hungary Electron-positron angular correlations were measured for the isovector magnetic dipole 17.6 MeV state (J π = 1+, T = 1) → ground state (J π = 0+, T = 0) and the isoscalar magnetic dipole 18.15 MeV (J π = 1+, T = 0) state → ground state transitions in 8Be. Significant deviation from the internal pair creation was observed at large angles in the angular correlation for the isoscalar transition with a confidence level of > 5σ. This observation might indicate that, in an intermediate step, a neutral isoscalar particle with a mass of 16.70±0.35 (stat)±0.5 (sys) MeV/c2 and J π = 1+ was created. PACS numbers: 23.20.Ra, 23.20.En, 14.70.Pw
Recently, several experimental anomalies were discussed as possible signatures for a new light particle . Some predictions suggest light neutral bosons in the 10 MeV – 10 GeV mass range as dark matter candidates, which couple to electrons and positrons [2–5], to explain the anomalies. A number of attempts were made to find such particles by using data from running facilities [6– 13] or reanalyzing data of preceding experiments [14–18]. Since no evidence was found, limits were set on their mass and their coupling strength to ordinary matter. In the near future, ongoing experiments are expected to extend those limits to regions in mass and coupling strength which are so far unexplored. All of them are designed to exploit the radiative production of the so-called dark photons (γ ′ ) by a very intense electron or positron beam on a high-Z target [19–24]. In the present work we reinvestigated the anomaly observed previously in the internal pair creation of an isovector (17.6 MeV) and an isoscalar (18.15 MeV) M1 transitions in 8Be [25–30].
Full Paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1504.01527v1.pdf
Footnote: this post or response appeared in the article featured in Nature and I thought was a worthy response
Everyone has the wrong idea of what energy, forces and fields are. Energy is a particle vibration or movement. You cannot have energy without a mass, energy is mass vibrating. Energy cannot be out on its own. (a supposed mass-less particle is a particle nonetheless, but there are no mass-less particles, so that’s irrelevant) Same thing goes for forces. A force is a group of particles arranged in a field pulling each other… and all of the particles absolutely have to be physically connected. A force (a group of connected particles) can only push very short distances and in rare circumstances like same pole magnets. But the point is… a force has to have particles involved. A force cannot be out on its own. Most of mainstream physics is a misconception. There is no such thing as pure energy. Again… Energy is a vibration on a particle (or particle movement). Can energy be converted into mass? Ummm… no, energy already has mass involved, it is a particle vibration or movement. There is no pure energy and you are not going to convert energy into mass. Think of a guitar string. If you pluck it… that is the energy. If you remove the guitar string from the scenario… can you still have the energy? No, of course not. Can you convert the guitar string vibration into mass? No… that is ridiculous. Look at what everything really is… Dimensions and units… mass = [M] = kilograms length = [L] = meters time = [T] = seconds frequency = [T^-1] = seconds ^-1 speed = [L] / [T] …… = m/s acceleration = [L] / [T^2] …. = m / s^2 momentum = [M] [L] / [T] … = kg_m / s force = [M] [L] / [T^2] . = kg_m / s^2 energy = [M] [L^2] / [T^2] = kg_m^2 / s^2 power = [M] [L^2] / [T^3] = kg_m^2 / s^3 Notice mass [M] is not equal to energy [M] [L^2] / [T^2] …the vibration is missing Here is what Einsteins famous equation really looks like… [M] [L^2] / [T^2] = [M] [L^2] / [T^2] Energy already is a mass times speed^2. If you could just lop-off parts of an equation and claim whatever is left is equal… i.e. “energy equals mass” then you could also say that “power equals mass” and so does momentum and force. It is really stupid to think like that. Speed is NOT equal to length. Speed is equal to length divided by time. Energy is NOT equal to mass. Energy is equal to mass times speed squared. READ THIS CAREFULLY: Energy is just a word for vibrating mass. It’s like “RED” — you can have a beautiful redheaded girlfriend, a red ball or a red firetruck — but you cannot have just “red.” Could there be a blob of “red” floating around in outer space? NO! it would have to be made from something. RED is a word to describe a property of something else. ENERGY is a word to describe a property of something else. The term “Pure Energy” came from Spock on Star Trek. That is SciFi.