Ultra dense fusion: 450 times or more the energy output as input Update
I decided to update the story as we had some excellent posts that should be placed in the main body of the story.. First of all our good friend PieEconomics and
PieEconomics received the following email from Leif
Leif Holmlid responds by email, May 2, 2017:
Can enough excess heat be created to power, say a steam electrical generator? With 450 times greater energy output than input, even allowing for losses, can the electrical output be self-looped as input?
How expensive would a demonstration like this be?
LH: “Maybe less than 1 Million USD. We are working on direct electricity generation which is better.”
Does suppression of energetic gamma radiation mean that no shielding is required?
LH: “Neutron radiation is suppressed. Some shielding is still needed for gamma etc.”
Is this something that could be scaled up to power a city? Scaled down to power a cell phone?
LH: “Scale up is possible of course, not scaled down very much. We work at present on the scale 1 MW.”
Since the article appeared, have you been contacted by other universities, governments, and private industry so that results can be replicated? How many years do you estimate until the technology is in general use?
LH: “All funds in fusion research go into large-scale fusion which will take 20-50 years if ever… No regular funds exist to support smaller scale fusion. The battle around “cold fusion” has destroyed this field. To turn the “Fusion ship” into another direction than the present is almost impossible.”
In layman’s terms, does hot fusion have advantages? I’m not a scientist, but do these alternative fusion methods not involve a chain reaction and therefore have less potential?
LH: “This is indeed hot fusion. Luckily most fusion reactor types do not have a chain reaction, thus they cannot become a bomb like a fission reactor.”
The following post was from
Claim: Metals filled with hydrogen and deuterium are teased with a green laser. The result is incredible energy release by a form of nuclear fusion never, well almost never, before described. This provides the excess heat, some 450 times or more the energy output as input
MESONS FROM LASER-INDUCED PROCESSES IN ULTRA DENSE HYDROGEN
“Mesons from Laser-Induced Processes in Ultra Dense Hydrogen H(0)” – Leif Holmlid – Published: January 12, in PLOS ONE. It seems a very unusual form of ultra dense fusion is in hand in an incredibly simple to reproduce form with all the precision particle physics anyone might ever demand to substantiate it.
Like a few others working on experiments with hydrogen loaded metals, aka ultra-dense states of hydrogen, Holmlid added a simple dimension of teasing the UDH (ultra dense hydrogen) with a green laser, something many have tried. What Holmlid did that is of such extraordinary substance is that he wrapped his experiment with the most sophisticated observational instruments imaginable. He is a true perfectionist scientist and his results offer proof of his experimentalist skills. He sought the data that would speak for itself and he gathered it.
What Holmlid’s data speaks of is that in the complex environment that is solid state matter (metals) filled with ultra dense hydrogen the complexity of the atom ecology therein defies being dumbed down into a singular form. There is an entire zoo of strange behaviour taking place and most assuredly the one behaviour that is NOT taking place is simply ordinary fusion. Most striking of all are the observations of strange, here-to-fore, crazy mischugenon particles, that are almost like nothing we’ve seen before.
SOLID STATE FUSION
Holmlid’s body of work going back a decade is amongst the most advanced in the field of the atom ecology of ultra dense hydrogen and the unusual fusion that is so characteristic of that field. His work points to obvious directions to stimulate the reactivity and technological promise. His observations also clearly show that the field of fusion is not at all a simple data point but is in fact a very complex continuum that merges ‘cold and hot’ fusion into an apparent fusion ecosystem. In the middle of it all is ultra dense fusion, aka solid state fusion.
As is becoming clearly apparent by the meticulous character of Prof. Holmlid he has explored the two common forms of hydrogen, light and heavy (deuterium). In reward for this dualistic pursuit he has observed that while both forms of hydrogen participate in these new fusion pathways only deuterium yields net energy gains.
He states, “MeV particles are ejected by laser-induced processes in both D(0) and p(0). Also, normal D+D fusion processes giving 4He and 3He ions were shown to be initiated by a relatively weak pulsed laser [using deuterium fuel]. Laser-induced nuclear fusion in D(0) gives heat above break-even, as reported in Ref. .”
450 TIMES OR MORE THE ENERGY OUTPUT AS INPUT.
To summarize it is safe to say that in both cases, light and heavy hydrogen, mesons/muons are produced in abundance. But with deuterium there is also classical D+D fusion where helium is formed in addition to the mesons, and this provides the excess heat, some 450 times or more the energy output as input. This is NOT the case with light hydrogen/protons. The expected 24 MeV gamma of classic D+D → 4He is NOT present.
Holmlid’s D+D fusion reactions proceed with two steps and only give an energy up to 3.0 MeV in the first reaction step, and up to 14.7 MeV in the second step of the reactions. This is the process apparently that avoids the 24 MeV gamma. Thus, nuclear processes take place with deuterium which are indeed a new version of fusion — with a new kind of unexpected multi-particle branching where gammas do not occur.
About that new multi-particle evidence what is apparent is that mesons come first after the laser pulse. But since mesons have incredibly short lifetimes what happens next is vital. The mesons very quickly transform into muons. In the presence of an enormous flux of muons catalyzed fusion which has been known for 75 years is entirely likely. It would be nigh unto impossible to avoid fusion when muons and tightly packed deuterons are both present. But the new physics doesn’t simply stop there an additional miracle appears in that the suppression of energetic gamma radiation is also a characteristic of this particular atom ecology.
Holmlid’s Magnum Opus is available for free online at PLOS ONE via this link http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169895